Relatively cold die material comes into contact with the substantially higher temperature melt during the casting cycle, causing high thermal fluctuations resulting into the cyclic change of thermal field. The presented contribution is devoted to the assessment of the impact of temperature distribution on individual zones in the die volume. The evaluated parameter is the die temperature. It was monitored at two selected locations with the 1 mm, 2 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm spacing from the die cavity surface to the volume of cover die and ejector die. As a comparative parameter, the melt temperature in the middle of the runner above the measuring point and the melt temperature close to the die face were monitored. Overall, the temperature was monitored in 26 evaluation points. The measurement was performed using the Magmasoft simulation software. The input settings of the casting cycle in the simulation were identical to those in real operation. It was found, that the most heavily stressed die zones by temperature were within the 20 mm from the die face. Above this distance, the heat supplied by the melt passes gradually into the entire die mass without significant temperature fluctuations. To verify the impact of the die cooling on the thermal field, a tempering system was designed to ensure different heat dissipation conditions in individual locations. At the end of the contribution, the measures proposals to reduce the high change of thermal field of dies resulting from the design of the tempering channel are presented. These proposals will be experimentally verified in the following research work.
The article presents results of heat treatment on the high chromium cast iron. The study was carrying out on samples cut from the casting made from chromium cast iron. Those were hardened at different temperatures, then tempered and soft annealed. The heat treatment was performed in a laboratory chamber furnace in the Department of Engineering Alloys and Composites at Faculty of Foundry Engineering AGH. At each stage of the heat treatment the hardness was measured by Vickers and Rockwell methods, and the microscope images were done. Additionally based on images from the optical microscope the microstructure was assessed. Based on these results, the effect of hardening, tempering and soft annealing on the microstructure and hardness of high chromium cast iron was studied. Next the effects of different hardening temperatures on the properties of high chromium cast iron were compared. The study led to systemize the literature data of the parameters of heat treatment of high chromium cast iron, and optimal conditions for heat treatment was proposed for casts of similar properties and parameters.
The paper presents properties of HS6-5-2 high speed steel subjected to deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) and subsequent tempering at different temperatures. DCT process of HS6-5-2 steel leads to shifting of maximum hardness peak to the lower temperature and the reduction of the obtained maximum hardness by about 1 HRC. These changes in hardness may be due to the shifting of the stage of nucleation and growth of carbide phases to lower temperatures or the changes taking place in the matrix, connected with the additional transformation of the martensite proceeding during the isothermal martensitic transformation occurring at cryogenic temperatures and more extensively occurring precipitation processes, lowering the content of the carbon in the martensite, determining thereby its lower hardness.
A possibility to control the strength, hardness and ductility of the L35HM low-alloy structural cast steel by the applied tempering temperature is discussed in the paper. Tests were carried out on samples taken from the two randomly selected industrial melts. Heat treatment of the cast samples included quenching at 900 °C, cooling in an aqueous solution of polymer, and tempering at 600 and 650 °C. The obtained results showed that the difference in the tempering temperature equal to 50 °C can cause the difference of 121 MPa in the values of UTS and of 153 MPa in the values of 0.2%YS. For both melts tempered at 600 °C, the average values of UTS and 0.2%YS were equal to 995 MPa and 933 MPa, respectively. The values of EL and RA did not show any significant differences. Attention was drawn to large differences in strength and hardness observed between the melts tempered at 600 and 650 °C. Despite differences in the mechanical properties of the examined cast steel, the obtained results were superior to those specified by the standard.
The main scope of the article is the development of a computer system, which should give advices at problem of cooper alloys manufacturing. This problem relates with choosing of an appropriate type of bronze (e.g. the BA 1044 bronze) with possible modification (e.g. calcium carbide modifications: Ca + C or CaC2) and possible heat treatment operations (quenching, tempering) in order to obtain desired mechanical properties of manufactured material described by tensile strength - Rm, yield strength - Rp0.2 and elongation - A5. By construction of the computer system being the goal of presented here work Case-based Reasoning is proposed to be used. Case-based Reasoning is the methodology within Artificial Intelligence techniques, which enables solving new problems basing on experiences that are solutions obtained in the past. Case-based Reasoning also enables incremental learning, because every new experience is retained each time in order to be available for future processes of problem solving. Proposed by the developed system solution can be used by a technologist as a rough solution for cooper alloys manufacturing problem, which requires further tests in order to confirm it correctness.