The paper presents recent developments concerning the formation of surface layer in austempered ductile iron castings. It was found that the traditional methods used to change the properties of the surface layer, i.e. the effect of protective atmosphere during austenitising or shot peening, are not fully satisfactory to meet the demands of commercial applications. Therefore, new ways to shape the surface layer and the surface properties of austempered ductile iron castings are searched for, to mention only detonation spraying, carbonitriding, CVD methods, etc.
Effects from adsorption of organic species on the surface of nanomaterials have been investigated. Exposure to organic contaminants during material processing, handling and environmental exposure is unavoidable during the manufacturing process of nanoscale materials. In addition, at the nanoscale, surface area to volume ratios increase and surface effects will have an increasing influence on the material properties. Experimentally measured electrical properties of gold nanowires and composition will be presented. The results indicated that C, C—O—C and C=O are adsorbed at the surface of the gold nanowires. These surface contaminants are believed to cause the increase in measured resistivity. A theoretical study was performed to investigate diffusion of these contaminants into the first surface layer, which may act as scattering mechanisms for current flow.
The AISI 430 stainless steel with ferritic structure is a low cost material for replacing austenitic stainless steel because of its higher yield strength, higher ductility and also better polarisation resistance in harsh environments. The applications of AISI 430 stainless steel are limited due to insignificant ductility and some undesirable changes of magnetic properties of its weld area with different microstructures. In this research, a study has been done to explore the effects of parameters of laser welding process, namely, welding speed, laser lamping current, and pulse duration, on the coercivity of laser welded AISI 430 stainless steel. Vibrating sample magnetometery has been used used to measure the values of magnetic properties. Observation of microstructural changes and also texture analysis were implemented in order to elucidate the change mechanism of magnetic properties in the welded sections. The results indicated that the laser welded samples undergo a considerable change in magnetic properties. These changes were attributed to the significant grain growth which these grains are ideally oriented in the easiest direction of magnetization and also formation of some non-magnetic phases. The main effects of the above-mentioned factors and the interaction effects with other factors were evaluated quantitatively. The analysis considered the effect of lamping current (175-200 A), pulse duration (10-20 ms) and travel speed (2-10 mm/min) on the coercivity of laser welded samples.
The study reported in this paper was aimed at establishing the effect of values of parameters characterizing the process of superficial remelting of a nodular iron casting on the quantity of introduced heat, geometry of remeltings as well as parameter λ and hardness of cementite eutectic. The remelting process was carried out using GTAW method, at electric arc length of 3 mm in argon atmosphere, welding current intensities I = 50, 130, 210, and 300 A, and electric arc scanning speeds vs = 200, 400, and 800 mm/min. The measurements included estimation of the quantity of heat introduced to the casting in the electric arc-induced remelting process with the use of flow calorimeter. Widths and depths of remetlings were assessed with the use of metallographic method. As a result of fast solidification, cementite eutectic was obtained in remelted material in which, in the course of cooling down to ambient temperature, austenite was subject to partial transformation into martensite. To characterize the cementite eutectic, value of the structural parameter λ was assessed. Values of the parameter were similar for areas of occurrence of both fibrous and laminated eutectic. Remeltings were examined at half of their depths. Micro-hardness measurements were taken in the same areas. The established quantitative relationships may prove to be useful in practice for the purpose of predicting values of parameter λ and hardness of remeltings in studies aimed at improving resistance of cast-iron castings to abrasive wear.