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Abstract

Construction elements of supercritical power plants are subjected to high working pressures and high temperatures while operating. Under these conditions high stresses in the construction are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stress limit. The goal is to find optimum operating parameters that can assure safe heating and cooling processes [1-5]. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the allowable stresses are not exceeded and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. In this work new numerical method for determining optimum working parameters is presented. Based on these parameters heating operations were conducted. Stresses were monitored during the entire processes. The results obtained were compared with the German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301.
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Abstract

One of the major concerns of the power energy industries is a proper operation of steam power blocks. Pressurized working medium and high temperature cause very high stresses in the construction elements such as collectors, separators or steam valves. They are exposed to sudden temperature and pressure changes that cause high stresses at certain points. Additionally, the cyclic character of loading causes material fatigue, known as low-cyclic fatigue, which may lead to the formation of fracture. Thus, methodologies offered by many companies should ensure reliable and safe operation of steam power blocks. The advanced numerical solutions for determining time-optimum medium temperature changes are presented. They are based on Levenberg-Marquardt and nonlinear programming by quadratic Lagrangian methods. The methods allow us to find parameters for start-up and shut-down operation that can reduce total stresses to limits governed by European regulations. Furthermore, the heating and cooling operations are conducted in a shortest time possible.
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Abstract

Modern supercritical power plants operate at very high temperatures and pressures. Thus the construction elements are subjected to both high thermal and mechanical loads. As a result high stresses in those components are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stresses that are defined according to boiler regulations. It is important to find optimum operating parameters, that can assure safe heating and cooling processes. The optimum parameters define temperature and pressure histories that can keep the highest stresses within allowable limit and reduce operation time as much as possible. In this paper a new numerical method for determining optimum working fluid parameters is presented. In this method, properties of steel can be assumed as constant or temperature dependent. The constant value is taken usually at the average temperature of the operation cycle. For both cases optimal parameters are determined. Based on these parameters start-up operations for both cases are conducted. During entire processes stresses in the heated element are monitored. The results obtained are compared with German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln fur Dampfkessel 301.
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