Mesoscale flows of liquid are of great importance for various nano- and biotechnology applications. Continuum model do not properly capture the physical phenomena related to the diffusion effects, such as Brownian motion. Molecular approach on the other hand, is computationally too expensive to provide information relevant for engineering applications. Hence, the need for a mesoscale approach is apparent. In recent years many mesoscale models have been developed, particularly to study flows of gas. However, mesoscale behaviour of liquid substantially differs from that of gas. This paper presents a numerical study of micro-liquids phenomena by a Voronoi Dissipative Particle Dynamics method. The method has its origin from the material science field and is one of very few numerical techniques which can describe correctly molecular diffusion processes in mesoscale liquids. This paper proves that correct prediction of molecular diffusion effects plays predominant role on the correct prediction of behaviour of immersed structures in the mesoscopic flow.
The quantitative description of an airlift bioreactor, in which aerobic biodegradation limited by carbonaceous substrate and oxygen dissolved in a liquid takes place, is presented. This process is described by the double-substrate kinetics. Mathematical models based on the assumption of plug flow and dispersion flow of liquid through the riser and the downcomer in the reactor were proposed. Calculations were performed for two representative hydrodynamic regimes of reactor operation, i.e. with the presence of gas bubbles only within the riser and for complete gas circulation. The analysis aimed at how the choice of a mathematical model of the process would enable detecting the theoretical occurrence of oxygen deficiency in the airlift reactor. It was demonstrated that the simplification of numerical calculations by assuming the “plug flow” model instead of dispersion with high Péclet numbers posed a risk of improper evaluation of the presence of oxygen deficiency zones. Conclusions related to apparatusmodelling and process design were drawn on the basis of the results obtained. The paper is a continuation of an earlier publication (Grzywacz, 2012a) where an analysis of single-substrate models of the airlift reactor was presented.
CFD modelling of momentum and heat transfer using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach has been presented for a Kenics static mixer. The simulations were performed with the commercial code ANSYS Fluent 15 for turbulent flow of three values of Reynolds number, Re = 5 000, 10 000 and 18 000. The numerical modelling began in the RANS model, where standard k−ε turbulence model and wall functions were used. Then the LES iterations started from the initial velocity and temperature fields obtained in RANS. In LES, the Smagorinsky–Lilly model was used for the sub-grid scale fluctuations along with wall functions for prediction of flow and heat transfer in the near-wall region. The performed numerical study in a Kenics static mixer resulted in highly fluctuating fields of both velocity and temperature. Simulation results were presented and analysed in the form of velocity and temperature contours. In addition, the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient values for the whole insert length were computed and compared with the literature experimental data. Good compliance of the LES simulation results with the experimental correlation was obtained.
Rock excavation is a basic technological operation during tunnelling and drilling roadways in underground mines. Tunnels and roadways in underground mines are driven into a rock mass, which in the particular case of sedimentary rocks, often have a layered structure and complicated tectonics. For this reason, rock strata often have highly differentiated mechanical properties, diverse deposition patterns and varied thicknesses in the cross sections of such headings. In the field of roadheader technology applied to drilling headings, the structure of a rock mass is highly relevant when selecting the appropriate cutting method for the heading face. Decidedly differentiated values of the parameters which describe the mechanical properties of a particular rock layer deposited in the cross section of the drilled tunnel heading will influence the value and character of the load on the cutting system, generated by the cutting process, power demand, efficiency and energy consumption of the cutting process. The article presents a mathematical modelling process for cutting a layered structure rock mass with the transverse head of a boom-type roadheader. The assumption was made that the rock mass being cut consists of a certain number of rock layers with predefined mechanical properties, a specific thickness and deposition pattern. The mathematical model created was executed through a computer programme. It was used for analysing the impact deposition patterns of rock layers with varied mechanical properties, have on the amount of cutting power consumed and load placed on a roadheader cutting system. The article presents an example of the results attained from computer simulations. They indicate that variations in the properties of the rock cut – as cutting heads are moving along the surface of the heading face – may have, apart from multiple other factors, a significant impact on the value of the power consumed by the cutting process.
This article considers designing of a renewable electrical power generation system for self-contained homes away from conventional grids. A model based on a technique for the analysis and evaluation of two solar and wind energy sources, electrochemical storage and charging of a housing area is introduced into a simulation and calculation program that aims to decide, based on the optimized results, on electrical energy production system coupled or separated from the two sources mentioned above that must be able to ensure a continuous energy balance at any time of the day. Such system is the most cost-effective among the systems found. The wind system adopted in the study is of the low starting speed that meets the criteria of low winds in the selected region under study unlike the adequate solar resource, which will lead to an examination of its feasibility and profitability to compensate for the inactivity of photovoltaic panels in periods of no sunlight. That is a system with fewer photovoltaic panels and storage batteries whereby these should return a full day of autonomy. Two configurations are selected and discussed. The first is composed of photovoltaic panels and storage batteries and the other includes the addition of a wind system in combination with the photovoltaic system with storage but at a higher investment cost than the first. Consequently, this result proves that is preferable to opt for a purely photovoltaic system supported by the storage in this type of site and invalidates the interest of adding micro wind turbines adapted to sites with low wind resources.
Pouring of liquid aluminium is typically accompanied by disturbance of the free surface. During these disturbances, the free surface oxide films can be entrained in the bulk of liquid, also pockets of air can be accidentally trapped in this oxide films. The resultant scattering of porosity in castings seems nearly always to originate from the pockets of entrained air in oxide films. Latest version of ProCast software allows to identify the amount of oxides formed at the free surface and where they are most likely to end-up in casts. During a filling calculation, ProCast can calculate different indicators which allow to better quantify the filling pattern. The fluid front tracking indicator “ Free surface time exposure” has the units [cm2*s]. At each point of the free surface, the free surface area is multiplied by the time. This value is cumulated with the value of the previous timestep. In addition, this value is transported with the free surface and with the fluid flow.Experiments to validate this new functions were executed.
Extremely intense development of civilization requires from foundry casting technologies very high quality and not expensive castings. In the foundries, there are many treatments that allow increasing of the final properties of produced castings such as refining, modification, heat treatment, etc. One of the methods of increasing the quality of the casting by removing inclusions from the liquid alloy is filtration. The use of ceramic-carbon foam filters in filtration process is still analysed phenomenon that allows improving the final properties of castings. A modern method of research, testing and synthesis of innovative chemical compositions allows improving the properties of such filters. In the paper the evaluation of application properties of developed ceramic-carbon bonded foam filters is presented. The quality of the foam filters is evaluated by Computer Tomography and foundry trials in pouring of liquid metal in test molds. Additionally computer simulations were made to visualize the flow characteristics in the foam filter. The analysed filters are the result of the research work of Foundry Research Institute and the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Refractory Materials Department in Gliwice.
In this paper a prototype framework for simulation of wireless sensor network and its protocols are presented. The framework simulates operation of a sensor network with data transmission, which enables simultaneous development of the sensor network software, its hardware and the protocols for wireless data transmission. An advantage of using the framework is converging simulation with the real software. Instead of creating a model of the sensor network node, the same software is used in real sensor network nodes and in the simulation framework. Operation of the framework is illustrated with examples of simulations of selected transactions in the sensor network.
The opportunity to assess haemolysis in a designed artificial heart seems to be one of the most important stages in construction. We propose a new method for assessing haemolysis level in a rotary blood pump. This method is based on CFD calculations using large eddy simulations (LES). This paper presents an approach to haemolysis estimation and shows examples of numerical simulation. Our method does not determine the value of haemolysis but allows for comparison of haemolysis levels between different artificial heart constructions.
In this article the magnetic memory model with nano-meter size made from iron cells was proposed. For a purpose of determining the model specifications, the magnetic probes group with different geometrical parameters were examined using numeric simulations for the two different time duration of transitions among quasistable magnetic distributions found in the system, derived from the energy minimums. The geometrical parameters range was found, for which the 16 quasi–stable energetic states exist for the each probe. Having considered these results the 4 bits magnetic cells systems can be designed whose state is changed by spin-polarized current. Time dependent current densities and the current electron spin polarization directions were determined for all cases of transitions among quasi–stable states, for discovered set of 4 bits cells with different geometrical parameters. The 16- states cells, with the least geometrical area, achieved the 300 times bigger writing density in comparison to actual semiconductor solutions with the largest writing densities. The transitions among quasi-stable states of cells were examined for the time durations 105 times shorter than that for up to date solutions.
The object of investigation was the one-strand tundish with flow control device such as gas permeable barrier (GPB). The aim of this flow control device was to activate the motion of liquid steel in the tundish longitudinal axis region. Computer simulation of the liquid steel flow and argon behaviour in isothermal turbulent motion conditions was done using the Ansys-Fluent computer program. For the validation of the hydrodynamic patterns obtained from computer simulations, a isothermal tundish glass model was used. Tundish glass model enables the recording of the visualization of fluid medium motion through the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Based on computer simulations, the liquid steel flow path lines in the tundish with GPB was obtained. For explain the hydrodynamic phenomena occurring in the tundish working space, the Buoyancy number has been calculated.
This work presents a numerical simulation of aviation structure joined by friction stir welding, FSW, process. The numerical simulation of aviation structure joined by FSW was created. The simulation uses thermomechanical coupled formulation. Th model required creation of finite elements representing sheets, stiffeners and welds, definition of material models and boundary conditions. The thermal model took into account heat conduction and convection assigned to appropriate elements of the structure. Time functions were applied to the description of a heat source movement. The numerical model included the stage of welding and the stage of releasing clamps. The output of the simulation are residual stresses and deformations occurring in the panel. Parameters of the global model (the panel model) were selected based on the local model (the single joint model), the experimental verification of the local model using the single joint and the geometry of the panel joints.
This paper presents a numerical investigation of fracture criterion influence on perforation of high-strength 30PM steel plates subjected to 7.6251 mm Armour Piercing (AP) projectile. An evaluation of four ductile fracture models is performed to identify the most suitable fracture criterion. Included in the paper is the Modified Johnson-Cook (MJC) constitutive model coupled separately with one of these fracture criteria: the MJC fracture model, the Cockcroft-Latham (CL), the maximum shear stress and the constant failure strain models. A 3D explicit Lagrangian algorithm that includes both elements and particles, is used in this study to automatically convert distorted elements into meshless particles during the course of the computation. Numerical simulations are examined by comparing with the experimental results. The MJC fracture model formulated in the space of the stress triaxiality and the equivalent plastic strain to fracture were found capable of predicting the realistic fracture patterns and at the same time the correct projectile residual velocities. However, this study has shown that CL one parameter fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration is found to give good results as the MJC failure criterion. The maximum shear stress fracture criterion fails to capture the shear plugging failure and material fracture properties cannot be fully characterized with the constant fracture strain.
Gas-liquid microreactors find an increasing range of applications both in production, and for chemical analysis. The most often employed flow regime in these microreactors is Taylor flow. The rate of absorption of gases in liquids depends on gas-side and liquid-side resistances. There are several publications about liquid-side mass transfer coefficients in Taylor flow, but the data about gas-side mass transfer coefficients are practically non existent. We analysed the problem of gas-side mass transfer resistance in Taylor flow and determined conditions, in which it may influence the overall mass transfer rate. Investigations were performed using numerical simulations. The influence of the gas diffusivity, gas viscosity, channel diameter, bubble length and gas bubble velocity has been determined. It was found that in some case the mass transfer resistances in both phases are comparable and the gas-side resistance may be significant. In such cases, neglecting the gas-side coefficient may lead to errors in the experimental data interpretation.
The numerical investigation of the mixing process in complex geometry micromixers, as a function of various inlet conditions and various micromixer vibrations, was performed. The examined devices were two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) types of serpentine micromixers with two inlets. Entering fluids were perturbed with a wide range of the frequency (0 - 50 Hz) of pulsations. Additionally, mixing fluids also entered in the same or opposite phase of pulsations. The performed numerical calculations were 3D to capture the proximity of all the walls, which has a substantial influence on microchannel flow. The geometry of the 3D type serpentine micromixer corresponded to the physically existing device, characterised by excellent mixing properties but also a challenging production process (Malecha et al., 2009). It was shown that low-frequency perturbations could improve the average mixing efficiency of the 2D micromixer by only about 2% and additionally led to a disadvantageously non-uniform mixture quality in time. It was also shown that high-frequency mixing could level these fluctuations and more significantly improve the mixing quality. In the second part of the paper a faster and simplified method of evaluation of mixing quality was introduced. This method was based on calculating the length of the contact interface between mixing fluids. It was used to evaluate the 2D type serpentine micromixer performance under various types of vibrations and under a wide range of vibration frequencies.
A hybrid artificial boundary condition (HABC) that combines the volume-based acoustic damping layer (ADL) and the local face-based characteristic boundary condition (CBC) is presented to enhance the absorption of acoustic waves near the computational boundaries. This method is applied to the prediction of aerodynamic noise from a circular cylinder immersed in uniform compressible viscous flow. Different ADLs are designed to assess their effectiveness whereby the effect of the mesh-stretch direction on wave absorption in the ADL is analysed. Large eddy simulation (LES) and FW-H acoustic analogy method are implemented to predict the far-field noise, and the sensitivities of each approach to the HABC are compared. In the LES computed propagation field of the fluctuation pressure and the frequency-domain results, the spurious reflections at edges are found to be significantly eliminated by the HABC through the effective dissipation of incident waves along the wave-front direction in the ADL. Thereby, the LES results are found to be in a good agreement with the acoustic pressure predicted using FW-H method, which is observed to be just affected slightly by reflected waves.