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Abstract

Recently, the rapid advancement of the IT industry has resulted in significant changes in audio-system configurations; particularly, the audio over internet protocol (AoIP) network-based audio-transmission technology has received favourable evaluations in this field. Applying the AoIP in a certain section of the multiple-cable zone is advantageous because the installation cost is lower than that for the existing systems, and the original sound is transmitted without any distortion. The existing AoIP-based technology, however, cannot control the audio-signal characteristics of every device and can only transmit multiple audio signals through a network. In this paper, the proposed Audio Network & Control Hierarchy Over peer-to-peer (Anchor) system enables all audio equipment to send and receive signals via a data network, and the receiving device can mix the signals of different IPs. Accordingly, it was possible to improve the system-application flexibility by simplifying the audio-system configuration. The research results confirmed that the received audio signals from different IPs were received, mixed, and output without errors. It is expected that Anchor will become a standard for audio-network protocols.
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Abstract

The association of phytoplasma was investigated in sand olive [Dodonaea viscosa ssp. Angustifolia (L. f.) J.G. West], cowpea [Vigna unguiclata (L.)] Wap and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants exhibiting witches broom, fasciation and little leaf symptoms, respectively. Sequence analysis of ~1.7 kb DNA fragments amplified by P1/P7 primer set confirmed the association of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’ within symptomatic alfalfa, while ‘Ca. Phytoplasma cynodontis’ was associated within cowpea and sand olive.
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