The objective of this work is to present an energy analysis of different absorption refrigerating systems operating with diverse refrigerants. Also is applied the method of experimental design to optimize configurations proposed by the absorption pairs used and the operating conditions. Both acceptable coefficient of performance and low operating generator temperature are scrutinised. Therefore, a computer program is developed. An investigation of the thermodynamic properties is presented. Results show the coefficient of performance evolution versus respectively the evaporator temperature, temperature of condensation and generator temperature. A particular interest is devoted to the intermediate pressure effect on the performance of different systems. In order to better converge in the selection of the configuration and the refrigerant, which can ensure a high coefficient of performance associated to relatively low operating generator temperature the plan of experiments has been developed, taking in account all parameters influencing the system performance and the function of operating temperature. Results show that the refrigerating machine containing a compressor between the evaporator and the absorber has a coefficient of performance quite acceptable and that it can work at low generator temperature for about 60 ◦C and using the NH3/LiNO3 as refrigerant.
Adsorption refrigeration systems are able to work with heat sources of temperature starting with 50°C. The aim of the article is to determine whether in terms of technical and economic issues adsorption refrigeration equipment can work as elements that produce cold using hot water from the district heating network. For this purpose, examined was the work of the adsorption air conditioning equipment cooperating with drycooler, and the opportunities offered by the district heating network in Warsaw during the summer. It turns out that the efficiency of the adsorption device from the economic perspective is not sufficient for production of cold even during the transitional period. The main problem is not the low temperature of the water supply, but the large difference between the coefficients of performance, COPs, of adsorption device and a traditional compressor air conditioning unit. When outside air temperature is 25°C, the COP of the compressor type reaches a value of 4.49, whereas that of the adsorption device in the same conditions is 0.14. The ratio of the COPs is 32. At the same time ratio between the price of 1 kWh of electric power and 1 kWh of heat is only 2.85. Adsorption refrigeration equipment to be able to compete with compressor devices, should feature COPads efficiency to be greater than 1.52. At such a low driving temperature and even changing the drycooler into the evaporative cooler it is not currently possible to achieve.
The trigeneration systems for production of cold use sorption refrigeration machines: absorption and adsorption types. Absorption systems are characterized namely by better cooling coefficient of performance, while the adsorptive systems are characterized by the ability to operate at lower temperatures. The driving heat source temperature can be as low as 60-70 °C. Such temperature of the driving heat source allows to use them in district heating systems. The article focuses on the presentation of the research results on the adsorption devices designed to work in trigeneration systems.
The purpose of this article was to discuss the use of adsorption chillers for waste heat recovery. The introduction discusses the need to undertake broader measures for the effective management of waste heat in the industry and discusses the benefits and technical problems related to heat recovery in industrial plants. In addition, heat sources for adsorption chillers and their application examples were described. The principle of operation of adsorption chillers is explained in the next chapter. Heat sources for adsorption chillers are indicated and their application examples are described. The above considerations have allowed the benefits and technical obstacles related to the use of adsorption chillers to be highlighted. The currently used adsorbents and adsorbates are discussed later in the article. The main part of the paper discusses the use of adsorption chillers for waste heat management in the glassworks. The calculations assumed the natural gas demand of 20.1 million m3 per year and the electricity demand of 20,000 MWh/year. As a result of conducted calculations, a 231 kW adsorption chiller, ensuring the annual cold production of 2,021 MWh, was selected. The economic analysis of the proposed solution has shown that the investment in the adsorption chiller supplied with waste heat from the heat recovery system will bring significant economic benefits after 10 years from its implementation, even with total investment costs of PLN 1,900,000. However, it was noted that in order to obtain satisfactory economic results the production must meet the demand while the cost of building a heat recovery system shall not exceed PLN 1 million.
This paper presents a new test method able to infer - in periods of less than 7 seconds - the refrigeration capacity of a compressor used in thermal machines, which represents a time reduction of approximately 99.95% related to the standardized traditional methods. The method was developed aiming at its application on compressor manufacture lines and on 100% of the units produced. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to establish a model able to infer the refrigeration capacity based on the data collected directly on the production line. The proposed method does not make use of refrigeration systems and also does not require using the compressor oil.
Searching for new refrigerants is one of the most significant scientific problems in refrigeration. There are ecological refrigerants commonly known: H2O and CO2. H2O and CO2 known as natural refrigerants, but they have problems:a high freezing point of H2O and a low triple point of CO2. These problems can be solved by the application of a hybrid sorption-compression refrigeration cycle. The cycle combines the application possibility of H2O in the high temperature sorption stage and the low temperature application of CO2 in the compression stage. This solution gives significant energy savings in comparison with the two-stage compressor cycle and with the one-stage transcritical CO2 cycle. Besides, the sorption cycle may be powered by low temperature waste heat or renewable heat. This is an original idea of the authors. In the paper an analysis of the possible extension of this solution for high capacity industrial refrigeration is presented. The estimated energy savings as well as TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) index for ecological gains are calculated.
In this work, a new dual-evaporator CO2transcritical refrigeration cycle with two ejectors is proposed. In this new system, we proposed to recover the lost energy of condensation coming off the gas cooler and operate the refrigeration cycle ejector free and enhance the system performance and obtain dual-temperature refrigeration simultaneously. The effects of some key parameters on the thermodynamic performance of the modified cycle are theoretically investigated based on energetic and exergetic analysis. The simulation results for the modified cycle indicate more effective system performance improvement than the single ejector in the CO2vapor compression cycle using ejector as an expander ranging up to 46%. The exergetic analysis for this system is made. The performance characteristics of the proposed cycle show its promise in dual-evaporator refrigeration system.
According to The European Commission’s regulation numbers 842/2006 and 517/2014, refrigerants whose Global Warming Potential ratio is more than 150, have been prohibited in mobile air conditioning (MAC) since January 2017. Therefore, the commonly used R-134 gas has been banned. The search for a new refrigerant, which grants all the required criteria, has begun. In accordance with new European standards, the gas should have environmentally friendly properties and should not be noxious to human life while operating. In this paper, two alternative substances, which can substitute the banned R134a, have been compared. This is synthetic R1234yf, which belongs to the HFO group, and carbon dioxide, which exists in the natural environment. The chemical build, physical and thermodynamic properties have been described. Scientific articles, which present and compare the technical results of testing both refrigerants, have been discussed. Comparison results, tools used and research methodology have been described in these articles. Alternative gases have been analyzed for their environmental impact and have been checked on the toxic, flammable, impact on ozone depletion and global warming. The threats to human life due to the use of the new refrigerants have been reviewed. The thesis also comprises an economical comparison between the two gases. A short review and conclusions have been presented at the end of the article.
The present paper describes the results of experimental investigations of heat transfer during condensation of R134a, R404A and R407C in pipe minichannels with internal diameters 0.31-3.30 mm. The results concern investigations of the local heat transfer coefficient. The results were compared with the correlations proposed by other authors. Within the range of examined parameters of the condensation process in minichannels made of stainless steel, it was established that the values of the heat transfer coefficient may be described with Akers et al., Mikielewicz and Shah correlations within a limited range of the mass flux density of the refrigerant and the minichannel diameter. On the basis of experimental investigations, the authors proposed their own correlation for the calculation of local heat transfer coefficient.
Paper deals with theoretical analysis of possible efficiency increase of compression refrigeration cycles by means of application of a twophase ejector. Application of the two phase ejector in subcritical refrigeration system as a booster compressor is discussed in the paper. Results of exergy analysis of the system operating with various working fluids for various operating conditions have been shown. Analysis showed possible exergy efficiency increase of refrigeration compression cycle.
The aim of the study was to examine the efficiency of the thermal wave type adsorption refrigerating equipment working on a pair of activated carbon and methanol. Adsorption units can work in trigeneration systems and in applications driven by waste heat. They can be built also as a part of hybrid sorption-compressor systems, and they are very popular in solar refrigeration systems and energy storage units. The device examined in this study operates in a special mode called thermal wave. This mode allows to achieve higher efficiency rates than the normal mode of operation, as a significant contributor to transport heat from one to the other adsorber. To carry out the experiment a test bench was built, consisting of two cylindrical adsorbers filled with activated carbon, condenser, evaporator, oil heater and two oil coolers. Thermal oil circulation was responsible for providing and receiving heat from adsorbers. In order to perform the correct action a special control algorithm device was developed and implemented to keep the temperature in the evaporator at a preset level. The experimental results show the operating parameters changes in both adsorbers. Obtained COP (coefficient of performance) for the cycle was 0.13.
The flat horizontal polymer loop thermosyphon with flexible transport lines is suggested and tested. The thermosyphon envelope consists of a polyamide composite with carbon based high thermal conductive micro-, nanofilaments and nanoparticles to increase its effective thermal conductivity up to 11 W/(m°C). Rectangular capillary mini grooves inside the evaporator and condenser of thermosyphon are used as a mean of heat transfer enhancement. The tested working fluid is R600. Thermosyphon evaporator and condenser are similar in design, have a long service life. In this paper three different methods (transient, quasi-stationary, and stationary) have been used to determine the thermophysical properties of polymer composites used as an envelope of thermosyphon, which make it possible to design a wide range of new heat transfer equipment. The results obtained contribute to establish the viability of using polymer thermosyphons for ground heat sinks (solar energy storage), gas-liquid heat exchanger applications involving seawater and other corrosive fluids, efficient cooling of superconductive magnets impregnated with epoxy/carbon composites to prevent wire movement, enhance stability, and diminish heat generation.