The authors established the chemical and phase compositions of grain fractions of the magnesia carbon scrap disintegrated using industrial cone crushers. The investigations included chemical and XRD analyses and optical investigations. The contents of admixtures: SiO2, CaO, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 increase with the decreasing size of the scrap grain fractions, whereas the C/S ratio decreases in finer and finer fractions due to changes of the phase composition. These relations are caused by the presence of low-fusible silicate phases, characterized by their cleavage and brittleness. Such phases were mainly derived from the graphite ash containing a high silica content. The scrap after removing its finest grain fractions can be recycled and utilized for producing the magnesia-carbon refractory materials. However, the finest grain fractions may be used, e.g. as a component of gunite mixes. Many years of experience collected by the ArcelorMittal Refractories Ltd., Krakow, Poland in the field of refractory scrap utilization has also been presented.
Nickel alloys belong to the group of most resistant materials when used under the extreme operating conditions, including chemically aggressive environment, high temperature, and high loads applied over a long period of time. Although in the global technology market one can find several standard cast nickel alloys, the vast majority of components operating in machines and equipment are made from alloys processed by the costly metalworking operations. Analysis of the available literature and own studies have shown that the use of casting technology in the manufacture of components from nickel alloys poses a lot of difficulty. This is due to the adverse technological properties of these alloys, like poor fluidity, high casting shrinkage, and above all, high reactivity of liquid metal with the atmospheric air over the bath and with the ceramic material of both the crucible and foundry mold. The scale of these problems increases with the expected growth of performance properties which these alloys should offer to the user. This article presents the results of studies of physico-chemical interactions that occur between theH282alloy melt and selected refractory ceramic materials commonly used in foundry. Own methodology for conducting micro-melts on a laboratory scale was elaborated and discussed. The results obtained have revealed that the alumina-based ceramics exhibits greater reactivity in contact with the H282 alloy melt than the materials based on zirconium compounds. In the conducted experiments, the ceramic materials based on zirconium silicate have proved to be a much better choice than the zirconia-silica mixture. Regardless of the type of the ceramic materials used, the time and temperature of their contact with the nickel alloy melt should always be limited to an absolutely necessary minimum required by the technological regime.
The paper presents results of assessment of the unit pressure force within the refractory material volume in the course press-moulding of stampings for refractory precast shapes. The force was evaluated with the use of physical simulation of deformation undergone by lead balls placed in the raw refractory mass subjected to pressing in a metal die. To determine the value of unit pressure force applied to the aggregate grains in the course of stamping press-moulding, physical model of deformation of a sphere induced by the uniaxial stress state was used.
The paper presents results of an analysis of material density distribution in stampings press-moulded in metal dies from raw refractory materials based on alumina-magnesia-carbon aggregate. The stampings, fabricated on LAEIS HPF 1250 pressing machine, are blanks from which refractory precast shapes are manufactured by means of drying and firing. Samples for material density evaluation were cut out from test stampings with the use of diamond-reinforced disc. Density of the material was determined in thirteen layers of stampings denoted with letters A through M.
The author has developed and patented several types of gas cupola furnaces, which, due to replacing coke with gas, do not emit carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and coke dust. The author has defined the optimal modes of gas-and-air mixture combustion, i.e. the optimal coefficient of air discharge and gas mixture escape speed in melting cast iron. It has been experimentally proved that from the point of view of obtaining the maximum temperature, the optimal was the process with some lack of air, i.e. with α = 0.98. The results of metallurgical studies used in the article allowed to develop an optimal structure of the gas cupola furnace with a heterogeneous refractory filling, and to establish the optimal composition of the filling. For the first time the optimal composition of the filling is given: 40% of chamotte, 30% of high-alumina refractory, 30% of electrode scrap. It has been noted that when gas cupola furnaces were used, the main environmental advantage was the reduction of dust emission into the atmosphere, CO and SO2 content.