Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) has been extensively used in aircraft turbine-engine components, aircraft structural components, aerospace fasteners, high performance automotive parts, marine applications, medical devices and sports equipment. However, wide-spread use of this alloy has limits because of difficulty to machine it. One of the major difficulties found during machining is development of poor quality of surface in the form of higher surface roughness. The present investigation has been concentrated on studying the effects of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on surface roughness of the product during turning of titanium alloy. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to collect data for surface roughness. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of the cutting parameters. The model equation is also formulated to predict surface roughness. Optimal values of cutting parameters were determined through response surface methodology. A 100% desirability level in the turning process for economy was indicated by the optimized model. Also, the predicted values that were obtained through regression equation were found to be in close agreement to the experimental values.
The wear behaviour of Cr3C2-25% NiCr laser alloyed nodular cast iron sample were analyzed using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The influence of sliding velocity, temperature and load on laser alloyed sample was focused and the microscopic images were used for metallurgical examination of the worn-out sites. Box-Behnken method was utilised to generate the mathematical model for the condition parameters. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based models are varied to analyse the process parameters interaction effects. Analysis of variance was used to analyse the developed model and the results showed that the laser alloyed sample leads to a minimum wear rate (0.6079×10–3 to 1.8570×10–3 mm3/m) and coefficient of friction (CoF) (0.43 to 0.53). From the test results, it was observed that the experimental results correlated well with the predicted results of the developed mathematical model.
The development of industry is determined by the use of modern materials in the production of parts and equipment. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the use of nickel-based superalloys in the aerospace, energy and space industries. Due to their properties, these alloys belong to the group of materials hard-to-machine with conventional methods. One of the non-conventional manufacturing technologies that allow the machining of geometrically complex parts from nickel-based superalloys is electrical discharge machining. The article presents the results of experimental investigations of the impact of EDM parameters on the surfaces roughness and the material removal rate. Based on the results of empirical research, mathematical models of the EDM process were developed, which allow for the selection of the most favourable processing parameters for the expected values of the surface roughness Sa and the material removal rate.
In the paper, the authors discuss the construction of a model of an exemplary urban layout. Numerical simulation has been performed by means of a commercial software Fluent using two different turbulence models: the popular k-ε realizable one, and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM), which is still being developed. The former is a 2-equations model, while the latter – is a RSM model – that consists of 7 equations. The studies have shown that, in this specific case, a more complex model of turbulence is not necessary. The results obtained with this model are not more accurate than the ones obtained using the RKE model. The model, scale 1:400, was tested in a wind tunnel. The pressure measurement near buildings, oil visualization and scour technique were undertaken and described accordingly. Measurements gave the quantitative and qualitative information describing the nature of the flow. Finally, the data were compared with the results of the experiments performed. The pressure coefficients resulting from the experiment were compared with the coefficients obtained from the numerical simulation. At the same time velocity maps and streamlines obtained from the calculations were combined with the results of the oil visualisation and scour technique.