The modification is a widespread method of improving the strength properties of cast iron. The impact in terms of increasing amounts of eutectic grains has been thoroughly studied while the issue of the impact on the mechanical properties of primary austenite grains has not been studied in depth yet. The paper presents the study of both aspects. The methodology was to conduct the melting cast iron with flake graphite, then modifying the alloy by two sets of modifiers: the commercial modifier, and a mixture of iron powder with a commercial inoculant. The DAAS test was carried out to identify the primary austenite grains. The degree of supercooling was determined and the UTS test was performed as well. Additionally carried out the metallographic specimen allowing for counting grains. It can be concluded that the introduction of the iron powder significantly improved the number of austenite primary grains which resulted in an increase in tensile strength UTS.
The present research was conducted on thin-walled castings with 5 mm wall thicknesses. This study addresses the effect of the influence of different master alloys, namely: (1) Al-5%Ti-1%B, (2) Al-5%Ti and (3) Al-3%B, respectively on the structure and the degree of undercooling (ΔTα = Tα-Tmin, where Tα - the equilibrium solidification temperature, Tmin - the minimum temperature at the beginning of α(Al) solidification) of an Al-Cu alloy. The process of fading has been investigated at different times spent on the refinement treatment ie. from 3, 20, 45 and 90 minutes respectively, from the dissolution of master alloys. A thermal analysis was performed (using a type-S thermocouple) to determine cooling curves. The degree of undercooling and recalescence were determined from cooling and solidification curves, whereas macrostructure characteristics were conducted based on a metallographic examination. The fading effect of the refinement of the primary structure is accompanied by a significant change in the number (dimension) of primary grains, which is strongly correlated to solidification parameters, determined by thermal analysis. In addition to that, the analysis of grain refinement stability has been shown with relation to different grain refinements and initial titanium concentration in Al-Cu base alloy. Finally, it has been shown that the refinement process of the primary structure is unstable and requires strict metallurgical control.
The aim of this paper was to attain defect free, pure copper castings with the highest possible electrical conductivity. In this connection, the effect of magnesium additives on the structure, the degree of undercooling (ΔTα = Tα-Tmin, where Tα – the equilibrium solidification temperature, Tmin – the minimum temperature at the beginning of solidification), electrical conductivity, and the oxygen concentration of pure copper castings have been studied. The two magnesium doses have been investigated; namely 0.1 wt.% and 0.2 wt.%. A thermal analysis was performed (using a type-S thermocouple) to determine the cooling curves. The degree of undercooling and recalescence were determined from the cooling and solidification curves, whereas the macrostructure characteristics were conducted based on a metallographic examination. It has been shown that the reaction of Mg causes solidification to transform from exogenous to endogenous. Finally, the results of electrical conductivity have been shown as well as the oxygen concentration for the used Mg additives.