Exploitation of hard coal seams by roadway system is applied by two coal mines in southern Poland in Upper Silesian Basin. It is a secondary mining exploitation carries out in safety pillars of urban areas and shafts within mining areas of closed coal mines. Roadway system is the excavation process of gateways which are made in parallel order leaving coal pillars between them. An optimal width of coal pillar makes roadway stable and reduces subsidence of terrain surface. The article presents results of subsidence simulation caused by partial extraction using empirical and numerical methods on the example of one exploitation field of “Siltech” coal mine. The asymptotic state of subsidence was considered after mining ceased in the study area. In order to simulate of subsidence, numerical model of rock mass and model of Knothe-Budryk theory were calibrated. Simulation of vertical displacements in numerical method was carried out using RS3 program by Rocscience based on finite element method. The assumption was made that model of rock mass is transversely isotropic medium, in which panels were designed according to order of extraction of coal seams. The results of empirical and numerical methods were compared with measured values of subsidence at benchmarks along drawn lines (subsidence profiles).
This paper presents the analysis of the influence of works related to the dynamic replacement column formation on the bridge pillar and the highway embankment located nearby. Thanks to DR columns, it is possible to strengthen the soil under road embankment in a very efficient way. However, the construction of such support carries risk to buildings and engineering structures located in the neighbourhood. Therefore modelling and monitoring of the influence of the conducted works should be an indispensable element of each investment in which dynamic replacement method is applied. The presented issue is illustrated by the example of soil strengthening with DR columns constructed under road embankment of DTŚ highway located in Gliwice. During the inspection, the influence of vibrations on the nearby bridge pillar and road embankment was examined. The acceleration values obtained during these tests were used to verify the elaborated numerical model.
This paper presents a complex study of anhydrite interbeds influence on the cavern stability in the Mechelinki salt deposit. The impact of interbeds on the cavern shape and the stress concentrations were also considered. The stability analysis was based on the 3D numerical modelling. Numerical simulations were performed with use of the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and the FLAC3D v. 6.00 software. The numerical model in a cuboidal shape and the following dimensions: length 1400, width 1400, height 1400 m, comprised the part of the Mechelinki salt deposit. Three (K-6, K-8, K-9) caverns were projected inside this model. The mesh of the numerical model contained about 15 million tetrahedral elements. The occurrence of anhydrite interbeds within the rock salt beds had contributed to the reduction in a diameter and irregular shape of the analysed caverns. The results of the 3D numerical modelling had indicated that the contact area between the rock salt beds and the anhydrite interbeds is likely to the occurrence of displacements. Irregularities in a shape of the analysed caverns are prone to the stress concentration. However, the stability of the analysed caverns are not expected to be affected in the assumed operation conditions and time period (9.5 years).
The behaviour of porous sinters, during compression and compression with reverse cyclic torsion tests is investigated in the article based on the combination of experimental and numerical techniques. The sinters manufactured from the Distaloy AB powder are examined. First, series of simple uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples with three different porosity volume fractions: 15, 20 and 25%. Obtained data were then used during identification procedure of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman finite element based model, which can capture influence of porosity evolution on plasticity. Finally, the identified Gurson-Tvergaard- Needleman model was validated under complex compression with reverse cyclic torsion conditions and proved its good predictive capabilities. Details on both experimental and numerical investigations are presented within the paper.
This article describes stability issues of main excavations in deep copper mines in Poland, from the perspective of mining work safety. To protect main transportation and ventilation routes, parts of rock are left untaken to form so-called protective pillars. The problem was to determine the size of main excavations protective pillars in deep underground copper mines in which provide stability of main excavations. The results of numerical simulations of the stability of protective pillars under specific geological and mining conditions are presented, covering: underground depth and width of protective pillar, number, size and layout geometry of protected excavations, as well as the impact of parameters of surrounding gob areas. Problem was solved applying numerical simulations based on the finite element method which were performed in a plane state of strain by means of Phase2 v. 8.0 software. The behavior of the rock mass under load was described by an elastic-plastic model. The Mohr-Coulomb criterion was used to assess the stability of the rock mass. The results of numerical modeling have practical applications in the designing of protective pillars primarily in determining their width. These results were used to prepare new guidelines for protective pillars in Polish copper mines in the Legnica-Glogow Copper District.
The cohesion and internal friction angle were characterized as quadratic functions of strain and were assumed to follow the Mohr-Coulomb criterion after the yield of peak strength. These mechanical parameters and their variations in post-peak softening stage can be exactly ascertained through the simultaneous solution based on the data points of stress-strain curves of triaxial compression tests. Taking the influence of the fault into account, the variation of strata pressure and roadway convergence with coal advancement, the temporal and spatial distribution of axial bolt load were numerically simulated by FLAC3D (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua) using the ascertained post-peak mechanical parameters according to the cohesion weakening and friction strengthening model. The change mechanism of axial load of single rock bolt as abutment pressure changes was analyzed, through the comparison analysis with the results of axial bolt load by field measurements at a coal mine face. The research results show that the simulated results such as the period of main roof weighting, temporal and spatial distribution of axial bolt load are in accordance with field measurement results, so the validity of the numerical model is testified. In front of the working face, the front abutment pressure increases first and then decreases, finally tends to be stable. A corresponding correlation exists between the variation of axial bolt load and rock deformation along the bolt body. When encountered by a fault, the maximum abutment pressure, the influential range of mining disturbance and the roadway convergence between roof and floor before the working face are all increased. In the roadways along the gob, axial bolt loads on the side of the working face decrease, while the other side one increases after the collapse of the roof. As superficial surrounding rock mass is damaged, the anchoring force of rock bolts will transfer to inner rock mass for balancing the tensile load of the bolts.
The paper presents a numerical model of the novel design of the axial magnetic bearing with six cylindrical poles. The motivation behind this idea was to eliminate vibrations in rotating machinery due to the axial load. Common conception of such a bearing provides a single component of the electromagnetic force, which is not enough to reduce transverse and lateral vibrations of the armature. The proposed design allows for avoiding wobbling of the disc with the use of a few axial force components that are able to actively compensate the axial load and stabilise the disc in a balanced position. Before a real device is manufactured, a virtual prototype should be prepared. The accurate numerical model will provide essential knowledge about the performance of the axial magnetic bearing.
Detailed studies of the movement of liquid steel (hydrodynamics) on a real object are practically impossible. The solution to this problem are physical modelling carried out on water models and numerical modelling using appropriate programs. The method of numerical modelling thanks to the considerable computing power of modern computers gives the possibility of solving very complex problems. The paper presents the results of model tests of liquid flow through tundish. The examined object was model of the twonozzle tundish model. The ANSYS Fluent program was used to describe the behavior of liquid in the working area of the tundish model. Numerical simulations were carried out using two numerical methods of turbulence description: RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) – model k-ε and LES (Large Eddy Simulation). The results obtained from CFD calculations were compared with the results obtained using the water model.
This paper presents possibilities for of numerical modelling of biomass combustion in a commercially available boiler. A sample of biomass was tested with respect to its physical and chemical properties. Thermogravimetry studies of biomass were carried out. Computer simulation makes it possible to analyse complex phenomena which are otherwise difficult to observe. The aim of this work was to model biomass combustion to predict the amount of pollutants generated (NOx, CO, SO2) in the exhaust gases coming out from boilers The calculations were made using the CHEMKIN program. Results of calculations were performed taking into account the influence of temperature, pressure and residence time.
A simple model of behaviour of a single particle on the bulging membrane was presented. As a result of numerical solution of a motion equation the influence of the amplitude and frequency of bulging as well as the particle size on particle behaviour, especially its downstream velocity was investigated. It was found that the bulging of a membrane may increase the mean velocity of a particle or reinforce its diffusive behaviour, dependeing on the permeation velocity. The obtained results may help to design new production methods of highly fouling-resistant membranes.
A numerical algorithm is presented for the filling process of a cylindrical column with equilateral cylinders. The process is based on simplified mechanics - the elements are added one by one until the mechanical equilibrium is reached. The final structure is examined with respect to the global and local porosity distribution. Oscillating radial porosity profile is obtained in accordance with experimental data.
The subject of the work is the analysis of thermomechanical bending process of a thin-walled tube made of X5CrNi18-10 stainless steel. The deformation is produced at elevated temperature generated with a laser beam in a specially designed experimental setup. The tube bending process consists of local heating of the tube by a moving laser beam and simultaneous kinematic enforcement of deformation with an actuator and a rotating bending arm. During experimental investigations, the resultant force of the actuator and temperature at the laser spot are recorded. In addition to experimental tests, the bending process of the tube was modelled using the finite element method in the ABAQUS program. For this purpose, the tube deformation process was divided into two sequentially coupled numerical simulations. The first one was the heat transfer analysis for a laser beam moving longitudinally over the tube surface. The second simulation described the process of mechanical bending with the time-varying temperature field obtained in the first simulation. The force and temperature recorded during experiments were used to verify the proposed numerical model. The final stress state and the deformation of the tube after the bending process were analyzed using the numerical solution. The results indicate that the proposed bending method can be successfully used in forming of the thin-walled profiles, in particular, when large bending angles and a small spring-back effect are of interest.
The presented results of investigations are part of a larger study focused on the optimization of the flow and mixing of liquid steel in the industrial tundish of continuous casting machine. The numerical simulations were carried out concern the analysis of hydrodynamic conditions of liquid steel flow in a tundish operating in one of the national steelworks. Numerical simulations were performed using the commercial code ANSYS Fluent. The research concerns two different speeds of steel casting. In real conditions, these speeds are the most commonly used in the technological process when casting two different groups of steel. As a result of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations, predicted spatial distributions of velocity and liquid steel turbulence fields and residence time distribution (RTD) curves were obtained. The volume fractions of different flows occurring in the tundish were also calculated. The results of the research allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of casting speed on the formation of hydrodynamic conditions prevailing in the reactor.
The levitation melting has a potentially wide range of applications, especially in the processing of reactive metals whose contact with the crucible material causes their contamination and damage to the crucible itself. Despite its advantages, levitation melting, already proposed in the 1920s, has not yet found significant use in industrial conditions. This is due to the nature of the electromagnetic field used in previously developed devices. The disappearance of this field in the system axis causes overcoming, in the case of larger charges, surface tension forces and metal leakage from the device. The article contains a comparative analysis of a conventional solution and a newly developed levitation melting device, whose completely different design eliminates the previous weight limit of the charge.
The paper describes research and development of aluminium melt refining technology in a ladle with rotating impeller and breakwaters using numerical modelling of a finite volume/element method. The theoretical aspects of refining technology are outlined. The design of the numerical model is described and discussed. The differences between real process conditions and numerical model limitations are mentioned. Based on the hypothesis and the results of numerical modelling, the most appropriate setting of the numerical model is recommended. Also, the possibilities of monitoring of degassing are explained. The results of numerical modelling allow to improve the refining technology of metal melts and to control the final quality under different boundary conditions, such as rotating speed, shape and position of rotating impeller, breakwaters and intensity of inert gas blowing through the impeller.
The modelling of colloidal fouling and defouling of hollow fibre membranes in the presence of membrane oscillations is analysed by means of numerical simulations as an effect of complex coupling between hydrodynamic and surface forces. To describe the latter the Derjaguin-Landau- Vervey-Overbeek (DLVO) model has been employed. We have investigated the influence of various parameters of the process like flow rate, mean particle diameter, amplitude and frequency of the oscillations, and others, on the efficiency of the defouling process. The investigated parameters is close to that of a silica suspension in , a typical system modelling used to investigate membrane separation. On the basis of numerical simulation results e have defined an optimal set of parameters preventing membrane fouling.
A process capable of NOx control by ozone injection gained wide attention as a possible alternative to proven post combustion technologies such as selective catalytic (and non-catalytic) reduction. The purpose of the work was to develop a numerical model of NO oxidation with O3 that would be capable of providing guidelines for process optimisation during different design stages. A Computational Fluid Dynamics code was used to simulate turbulent reacting flow. In order to reduce computation expense a 11-step global NO - O3 reaction mechanism was implemented into the code. Model performance was verified by the experiment in a tubular flow reactor for two injection nozzle configurations and for two O3/NO ratios of molar fluxe. The objective of this work was to estimate the applicability of a simplified homogeneous reaction mechanism in reactive turbulent flow simulation. Quantitative conformity was not completely satisfying for all examined cases, but the final effect of NO oxidation was predicted correctly at the reactor outlet.
In the paper a heating system with a vapour compressor heat pump and vertical U-tube ground heat exchanger for small residential house is considered. A mathematical model of the system: heated object - vapour compressor heat pump - ground heat exchanger is presented shortly. The system investigated is equipped, apart from the heat pump, with the additional conventional source of heat. The processes taking place in the analyzed system are of unsteady character. The model consists of three elements; the first containing the calculation model of the space to be heated, the second - the vertical U-tube ground heat exchanger with the adjoining area of the ground. The equations for the elements of vapour compressor heat pump form the third element of the general model. The period of one heating season is taken into consideration. The results of calculations for two variants of the ground heat exchanger are presented and compared. These results concern variable in time parameters at particular points of the system and energy consumption during the heating season. This paper presents the mutual influence of the ground heat exchanger subsystem, elements of vapour compressor heat pump and heated space.
This paper presents the results of thermodynamic analyses of a system using a horizontal ground heat exchanger to cool a residential building in summer and heat it in the autumn-winter period. The main heating device is a vapour compression heat pump with the ground as the lower heat source. The aim of the analyses is to examine the impact of heat supply to the ground in the summer period, when the building is cooled, on the operation of the heating system equipped with a heat pump in the next heating season, including electricity consumption. The processes occurring in cooling and heating systems have an unsteady nature. The main results of the calculations are among others the time-dependent values of heat fluxes extracted from or transferred to the ground heat exchanger, the fluxes of heat generated by the heat pump and supplied to the heated building by an additional heat source, the parameters in characteristic points of the systems, the temperature distributions in the ground and the driving electricity consumption in the period under analysis. The paper presents results of analysis of cumulative primary energy consumption of the analyzed systems and cumulative emissions of harmful substances. Słowa kluczowe
The article presents numerical analysis of the portion of concrete airport pavement that consists of two concrete panels connected with dowels, subjected to thermal and service loads, in terms of changes in base rigidity, plate thickness and diameters, and spacing of dowels. Modifications of the thickness of the plates, diameter and spacing of dowels, and base rigidity were considered by assessing the level of stress and displacement in the analysed concrete plate, as well as normal and tangential stresses in dowels by using finite element method. On the basis of an analysis of examples, an optimal solution of dowelling connections in concrete plates with established loads was proposed. The results of the calculations were presented as a contour level distributions and comparison tables.
Reliable estimation of geotechnical parameters is often based on reconstruction of a complete loading process of subsoil on a specimen in laboratory tests. Unfortunately laboratory equipment available in many laboratories is sometimes limited to just a triaxial apparatus – the use of which generates diffi culties whenever a non-axisymmetric problem is analysed. The author suggests two simple operations that may be done to improve the quality of simulation in triaxial tests. The fi rst one is based on the use of triaxial extension along the segments of the stress path p’-q-θ for which the Lode’s angle values are positive. The second one consists in a mod-ifi cation of the equivalent stress value in such a way that the current stress level in the specimen complies with results of FEM analysis.
The paper evaluates two approaches of numerical modelling of solidification of continuously cast steel billets by finite element method, namely by the numerical modelling under the Steady-State Thermal Conditions, and by the numerical modelling with the Traveling Boundary Conditions. In the paper, the 3D drawing of the geometry, the preparation of computational mesh, the definition of boundary conditions and also the definition of thermo-physical properties of materials in relation to the expected results are discussed. The effect of thermo-physical properties on the computation of central porosity in billet is also mentioned. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of two described approaches are listed and the direction of the next research in the prediction of temperature field in continuously cast billets is also outlined.
A numerical model of binary alloy crystallization, based on the cellular automaton technique, is presented. The model allows to follow the crystallization front movement and to generate the images of evolution of the dendritic structures during the solidification of a binary alloy. The mathematic description of the model takes into account the proceeding thermal, diffusive, and surface phenomena. There are presented the results of numerical simulations concerning the multi-dendritic growth of solid phase along with the accompanying changes in the alloying element concentration field during the solidification of Al + 5% wt. Mg alloy. The model structure of the solidified casting was achieved and compared with the actual structure of a die casting. The dendrite interaction was studied with respect to its influence on the generation and growth of the primary and secondary dendrite arms and on the evolution of solute segregation both in the liquid and in the solid state during the crystallization of the examined alloy. The morphology of a single, free-growing dendritic crystal was also modelled. The performed investigations and analyses allowed to state e.g. that the developed numerical model correctly describes the actual evolution of the dendritic structure under the non-equilibrium conditions and provides for obtaining the qualitatively correct results of simulation of the crystallization process.
New York Bay is one of the most important transition regions of ships trading to east America. The region plays an important role in the commerce of the New York metropolitan area. The area is surrounded with the coasts that have various levels of environmental sensitivity. The area accommodates high diversity of native ecosystems and species that are rather vulnerable in case of oil spill. Thus getting well informed about the likelihood, or fate, of oil spills around this region is of great importance so that proactive measures can be taken. The purpose of this study is to investigate the oil spill and predict the future accidents likely to be encountered around the Bay of New York. Two trajectory models have been conducted for the study. ADIOS (Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills), has been conducted for natural degradation calculations, and, GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment), has been conducted for surface spread simulation. The results gained through these efforts are hoped to be useful for many organizations dealing with oil spill response operations and contribute to an effective and efficient coordination among the relevant institutions.