The results of testing the strength properties of experimental ceramic materials containing spending moulding sand after initial mechanical reclamation as a material for subsequent layers of the stucco composition were presented. Tests were carried out on spent moulding sands from various foundry technologies, i.e. sand with furfuryl resin and sand with hydrated sodium silicate. The spent, agglomerated moulding sand has undergone a crushing process. Next, the required granular fractions used for individual layers of the stucco material were separated. Ceramic samples, in which the spent moulding sand was a substitute for fresh silica sand in successive layers of the stucco composition, were prepared. As a reference material, identical ceramic samples were used but with all layers made from the fresh silica sand. Samples prepared in this way were used to determine the bending strength of ceramic materials in the temperature range from 20 to 900ºC. The obtained values of the bending strength have demonstrated that spent moulding sand can be used in investment casting with no adverse effect on the strength of ceramic materials.
In this work, the influence of microwave drying parameters such as irradiation time and microwave power level on the properties of synthetic moulding sands is presented. Determination of compressive strength Rc s, shear strength Rt s and permeability Ps of synthetic moulding sands with the addition of two different bentonites, after drying process with variable microwave parameters were made. The research works were carried out using the microwave oven with regulated power range of the electromagnetic field. From the results obtained, the significant influence of both drying time and microwave power level on the selected properties of moulding sands was observed. In comparison to the conventional drying method, microwave drying allows to obtain higher compressive strength of the synthetic moulding sand. The influence of application microwave irradiation on permeability was not observed. Higher strength characteristics and shorter drying time are major advantages of application of the electromagnetic irradiation for drying of the synthetic moulding sand with regard to conventional drying method.
Ablation casting is a technological process in which the increased cooling rate causes microstructure refinement, resulting in improved mechanical properties of the final product. This technology is particularly suitable for the manufacture of castings with intricate shapes and thin walls. Currently, the ablation casting process is not used in the Polish industry. This article presents the results of strength tests carried out on moulding sands based on hydrated sodium silicate hardened in the Floster S technology, intended for ablation casting of the AlSi7Mg (AK7) aluminium alloy. When testing the bending and tensile strengths of sands, parameters such as binder and hardener content were taken into account. The sand mixtures were tested after 24h hardening at room temperature. The next stage of the study describes the course of the ablation casting process, starting with the manufacture of foundry mould from the selected moulding mixture and ending in tests carried out on the ready casting to check the surface quality, structure and mechanical properties. The results were compared with the parallel results obtained on a casting gravity poured into the sand mould and solidifying in a traditional way at ambient temperature.
Moulding properties of Isasa River Sand bonded with Ipetumodu clay (Ife-North Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria) were investigated. American Foundry men Society (AFS) standard cylindrical specimens 50mm diameter and 50mm in height were prepared from various sand and clay ratios (between 18% and 32%) with 15% water content. The stress-strain curves were generated from a universal strength testing machine. A flow factor was calculated from the inclination of the falling slope beyond the maximum compressive strength. The result shows that the flowability of the samples increases from 18% to 26% clay content, its maximum value was attained at 26% and then it decreases from 30% to 32% clay content. The green compressive strength, dry compressive strength and air permeability values obtained from the mould samples were in accordance with standard values used in foundry practice. The x-ray diffraction test shows that the sand contains silicon oxide (SiO2), Aluminium oxide (Al2O3), and Aluminium silicate (Al6Si2O13). The mould samples were heated to a temperature of 1200 o C to determine the sintering temperature; fussion did not take place at this temperature. The results showed that the sand and clay mixture can be used to cast ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.
Until now, the mould sand in general use in the foundry industry are based on bentonite, which resulted from the fact that a good recognition properties and phenomena associated with this material. Come to know and normalized content of montmorillonite and carbonates and their important role in the construction of bentonite, and mass properties of the participation of compressive strength or scatter. Halloysite is widely used in industry and beyond them. However, little is known about its use in the foundry in Poland and abroad. This article presents preliminary research conducted at the Foundry Department of Silesian University of Technology on this material. Will raise the question of the representation of this two materials, which contains information connected with history and formation of materials, their structure and chemical composition. In the research, the results of compressive strength tests in wet masses of quartz matrix, where as a binder is used halloysite and bentonite in different proportions.
Recently, some major changes have occurred in the structure of the European foundry industry, such as a rapid development in the production of castings from compacted graphite iron and light alloys at the expense of limiting the production of steel castings. This created a significant gap in the production of heavy steel castings (exceeding the weight of 30 Mg) for the metallurgical, cement and energy industries. The problem is proper moulding technology for such heavy castings, whose solidification and cooling time may take even several days, exposing the moulding material to a long-term thermal and mechanical load. Owing to their technological properties, sands with organic binders (synthetic resins) are the compositions used most often in industrial practice. Their main advantages include high strength, good collapsibility and knocking out properties, as well as easy mechanical reclamation. The main disadvantage of these sands is their harmful effect on the environment, manifesting itself at various stages of the casting process, especially during mould pouring. This is why new solutions are sought for sands based on organic binders to ensure their high technological properties but at the same time less harmfulness for the environment. This paper discusses the possibility of reducing the harmful effect of sands with furfuryl binders owing to the use of resins with reduced content of free furfuryl alcohol and hardeners with reduced sulphur content. The use of alkyd binder as an alternative to furfuryl binder has also been proposed and possible application of phenol-formaldehyde resins was considered.
The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of a new product added to water glass-containing foundry sands hardened with ethylene glycol diacetate. The new additive designated by the symbol "B" is a composition of aqueous solutions of modified polyalcohols, improving the sand knocking out properties. The scope of studies included testing various mechanical and technological properties of foundry sand mixtures, such as permeability, friability, life cycle of cores and knocking out properties. In the technological studies, two types of water glass with different values of the silica modulus and density, designated as R145 and R150, were used. Moulding sands were prepared with the additive "B". For comparison, reference sands with water glass but without the additive "B" were also made. In Part I of the article, the results of studies of the effect of additive "B" on the properties of foundry sands with water glass hardened by CO2 blowing were discussed.
Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in their circulation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigation methods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimation of the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach to factors deciding on the matrix technological suitability as well as on their environmental impact. Into modern methods allowing for the better assessment of the matrix quality belongs the grain size analysis of the reclaimed material performed by means of the laser diffraction and also the estimation of the moulding sand gas evolution rate and identification of the emitted gases and their BTEX group gases content, since they are specially hazardous from the point of view of the Occupational Safety and Health.
The cumulative results of investigations of the possibility of using the reclaimed materials after the mechanical, thermal or mechanical-thermal reclamation for making cores by means of the blowing method in the alkaline CO2 technology, are presented in the paper. Three kinds of spent sands: with furfuryl resin, bentonite and alkaline phenolic resin, obtained from the foundry, were subjected to three kinds of reclamation: mechanical, thermal and combined mechanical-thermal, applying for this aim adequate experimental devices. The obtained reclaims were assessed with regard to the degree of the matrix liberation from the determined binding material. Reclaims of moulding sands with binders of the form of resin were assessed with regard to ignition loss values and pH reaction, while reclaims of moulding sands with bentonite with regard to the residual clay content and pH value. In all cases the results of the performed sieve analyses were estimated and the average characteristic diameter dl was determined. The reclaimed matrix was applied as a full substitute of the fresh high-silica sand in typical procedures of preparing core sands used for making shaped samples for bending strength investigations, Rg u .
The aim of the hereby paper is to present the developed model of determining the volume and surface porosity based on the main fraction of polifractional materials, its experimental verification and utilisation for the interpretation of effects accompanying the formation of a moulding sand apparent density, porosity and permeability in the blowing processes of the core and moulds technology.
Using the available analytical methods, including the determination of chemical composition using wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy technique and phase composition determined using X-ray diffraction, microstructural observations in a highresolution scanning microscope equipped with an X-ray microanalysis system as well as determination of characteristic softening and sintering temperatures using high-temperature microscope, the properties of particular chromite sands were defined. For the study has been typed reference sand with chemical properties, physical and thermal, treated as standard, and the sands of the regeneration process and the grinding process. Using these kinds of sand in foundries resulted in the occurrence of the phenomenon of the molding mass sintering. Impurities were identified and causes of sintering of a moulding sand based on chromite sand were characterized. Next, research methods enabling a quick evaluation of chromite sand suitability for use in the preparation of moulding sands were selected.
The paper presents the results of laboratory tests into the effects of moisture and the content of two types of bentonite on dielectric properties of moulding sand. The use of electromagnetic waves in foundry industry is becoming more and more popular, which provides to some extent alternatives to conventional drying methods. Experimental studies published so far have shown the validity of using microwaves for drying classic moulding sands with bentonite. However, these studies lack data on the effect of moisture or bentonite content in moulding sand on the real component ε' or imaginary component ε'' of the relative complex electrical permittivity. The presented results may become in the future the basis for the evaluation of the composition of moulding sands, taking into account the phenomena occurring under the influence of electromagnetic field, which directly translates into the quality of the castings made and may constitute an attempt to develop a mathematical model of electric properties of moulding sands.
Bentonite is clay rock, which is created by decomposition of vulcanic glass. It is formed from mixture of clay minerals of smectite group, mainly montmorillonite, beidellite and nontronite. Its typical characteristics is, that when in contact with water, it intensively swells. First who used this term was W.C. Knight in 1887. The rock had been named after town Fort Benton in American state Montana. For its interesting technological properties and whiteness has wide technological use. Bentonite is selectively mined and according to its final use separately modified, which results in high quality product with specific parameters. In the beginning of 21st century belong bentonite moulding mixtures in foundry to always perspective. Mainly increased ratio of ductile cast iron castings production cannot be ensured without the need of quality bentonite. Great area of scope remains to further research of moulding materials, which return also to bentonite producers.
It was found that the addition of carbon fibers (CFs) does not affect the crosslinking process in the microwave radiation (800 W, 2.45 GHz) of the BioCo2 binder, which is a water solution of poly(acrylic acid) and dextrin (PAA/D). It has influence on BioCo2 thermal properties. The CFs addition improves the thermostability of a binder and leads to the reduction of gas products quantity generated in the temperature range of 300-1100°C (TG-DTG, Py-GC/MS). Moreover, it causes the emission of harmful decomposition products such as benzene, toluene, xylene and styrene to be registered in a higher temperatures (above 700°C). BioCo2 binder without CFs addition is characterized by the emission of these substances in the lower temperature range. This indicates the positive effect of carbon fibers presence on the amount of released harmful products. The selected technological tests (permeability, friability, bending strength, tensile strength) have shown that the moulding sand with the 0.3 parts by weight carbon fibers addition displays the worst properties. The addition of 0.1 parts by weight of CFs is sufficient to obtain a beneficial effect on the analyzed moulding sands properties. The reduction of harmful substances at the higher temperatures can also be observed.
The paper presents results of preliminary examinations on possibility of determining binder content in traditional moulding sands with the microwave method. The presented measurements were carried-out using a special stand, the so-called slot line. Binder content in thesandmix was determined by measurements of absorption damping Ad and insertion losses IL of electromagnetic wave. One of main advantages of the suggested new method of binder content measurement is short measuring time.
The paper presents measurement results of standing wave ratio to be used as an efficiency indicator of microwave absorption by used moulding and core sands chosen for the microwave utilization process. The absorption measurements were made using a prototype stand of microwave slot line. Examined were five used moulding and core sands. It was demonstrated that the microwave absorption measurements can make grounds for actual microwave utilization of moulding and core sands.
Substituting of ethyl silicate with ecologic sols of colloidal silica in the investment casting technology, resulting from the increased demands concerning environmental protection, caused the prolongation of production cycle for precision castings produced in multi-layer thin-walled ceramic shell moulds. Modification of Sizol 030 binder with benzoyl peroxide, proposed in the paper, was aimed at restriction of time needed for realization of a single layer of the shell mould, and by the same, of such a mould as a whole. Examination of kinetics of the drying process were held for the layers made of prepared moulding material and the influence of binder modification on the mould curing time was determined.
Casting quality depends on many factors including the quality of the input materials, technology, material securing and last but not least, the mould into which the casting is casted. By pouring into a single-shot mould, based mainly on 1st generation binders, is is a very important factor. Basically, a bentonite mixture represents either a three- or four-component system, but each component of the system is a heterogeneous substance. This heterogeneity punctuates mainly a non-stationary heat field, presented throughout the whole process of the casting production. The most important component is a binder and in the case of first generation binders mostly bentonites are used - clays that contain minimum of 80% of montmorillonite
Gas emission from casting moulds, cores and coatings applied for sand and permanent moulds is one of the fundamental reasons of casting defects occurrence. In the previous studies, gas emission was measured in two ways: normalized, in which the evolving gas volume was measured during heating of the moulding sand sample in a sealed flask, or by measuring the amount of gas from sand core (sample) which is produced during the pouring of liquid metal. After the pouring process the sand mould is heated very unequally, the most heated areas are layers adjacent to the liquid metal. The emission of gas is significantly larger from the surface layer than from the remaining ones. New, original method of measuring kinetics of gas emission from very thin layers of sand moulds heated by liquid metal developed by the authors is presented in the hereby paper. Description of this new method and the investigation results of kinetics of gas emission from moulding sand with furan and alkyd resin are shown. Liquid grey cast iron and Al-Si alloy were used as a heat source in the sand moulds. Comparison of the kinetics of gas emission of these two kinds of moulding sands filled with two different alloys was made. The momentary metal temperature in sand mould was assigned to the kinetics of gas emission, what creates a full view of the possibility of formation of casting defects of the gaseous origin. Moulding sand with alkyd resin is characterized by larger gas emission; however gases are emitted slower than in the case of moulding sands with furan resin. This new investigation method has a high repeatability and is the only one which gives a full view of phenomenon’s in the surface layer which determines quality of the casings. The obtained results are presented on several graphs and analyzed in detail. They have a great application value and can be used in the production of iron as well as light metal alloy castings.
The new investigation method of the kinetics of the gas emission from moulding sands used for moulds and cores is presented in this paper. The gas evolution rate is presented not only as a function of heating time but also as a function of instantaneous temperatures. In relation to the time and heating temperature the oxygen and hydrogen contents in evolving gases was also measured. This method was developed in the Laboratory of Foundry Moulds Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH. Gas amounts which are emitted from the moulding sand at the given temperature recalculated to the time unit (kinetics) are obtained in investigations. Results of investigations of moulding sand with furan resin are presented - as an example - in the paper.
In the paper presented are results of a research on influence of electrical and physico-chemical properties of materials being parts of multicomponent and multimaterial systems used in foundry practice on efficiency and effectiveness of microwave heating. Effectiveness of the process was evaluated on the grounds of analysis of interaction between selected parameters of permittivity and loss factor, as well as collective index of energy absorbed, reflected and transmitted by these materials. In the examinations used was a stand of waveguide resonance cavity for determining electrical properties and a stand of microwave slot line for determining balance of microwave power emitted into selected materials. The examinations have brought closer the possibility of forecasting the behaviour of multimaterial systems like e.g. model, moulding sand or moulding box in microwave field on the grounds of various electrical and physico-chemical properties. On the grounds of analysis of the results, possible was selecting a group of materials designed for building foundry instrumentation to be effectively used in electromagnetic field.
The effects of silica additive (Poraver) on selected properties of BioCo3 binder in form of an aqueous poly(sodium acrylate) and dextrin (PAANa/D) binder were determined. Based on the results of the thermoanalytical studies (TG-DTG, FTIR, Py-GC/MS), it was found that the silica additive results in the increase of the thermostability of the BioCo3 binder and its contribution does not affect the increase in the level of emissions of organic destruction products. Compounds from group of aromatic hydrocarbons are only generated in the third set temperature range (420-838°C). The addition of silicate into the moulding sand with BioCo3 causes also the formation of a hydrogen bonds network with its share in the microwave radiation field and they are mainly responsible for maintaining the cross-linked structures in the mineral matrix system. As a consequence, the microwave curing process in the presence of Poraver leads to improved strength properties of the moulding sand (���� �� ). The addition of Poraver's silica to moulding sand did not alter the permeability of the moulding sand samples, and consequently reduced their friability. Microstructure investigations (SEM) of microwave-cured samples have confirmed that heterogeneous sand grains are bonded to one another through a binder film (bridges).
The results of investigations of moulding sands with an inorganic binder called GEOPOL, developed by the SAND TEAM Company are presented in the paper. Hardeners of various hardening rates are used for moulding sands with this binder. The main aim of investigations was determination of the influence of the hardening rate of moulding sands with the GEOPOL binder on technological properties of these sands (bending strength, tensile strength, permeability and grindability). In addition, the final strength of moulding sands of the selected compositions was determined by two methods: by splitting strength and shear strength measurements. No essential influence of the hardening rate on such parameters as: permeability, grindability and final strength was found. However, the sand in which the slowest hardener (SA 72) were used, after 1 hour of holding, had the tensile and bending strength practically zero. Thus, the time needed for taking to pieces the mould made of such moulding sand will be 1.5 - 2 hours.
The results of investigations of the influence of the matrix grain sizes on properties of cores made by the blowing method are presented in the hereby paper. Five kinds of matrices, differing in grain size compositions, determined by the laser diffraction method in the Analysette 22NanoTec device, were applied in investigations. Individual kinds of matrices were used for making core sands in the Cordis technology. From these sands the shaped elements, for determining the apparent density of compacted sands and their bending strength, were made by the blowing method. The shaped elements (cores) were made at shooting pressures being 3, 4 and 5 atn. The bending strength of samples were determined directly after their preparation and after the storing time of 1 hour.
This publication describes research on the course of the process of cross-linking new BioCo polymer binders - in the form of water-based polymer compositions of poly(acrylic acid) or poly(sodium acrylate)/modified polysaccharide - using selected physical and chemical factors. It has been shown that the type of cross-linking factor used influences the strength parameters of the moulding sand. The crosslinking factors selected during basic research make it possible to obtain sand strengths similar to those of samples of sands bonded with commercial binders. Microwave radiation turned out to be the most effective cross-linking factor in a binder-matrix system. It was proven that adsorption in the microwave radiation field leads to the formation of polymer lattices with hydrogen bonds which play a major role in maintaining the formed cross-linked structures in the binder-matrix system. As a result, the process improves the strength parameters of the sand, whereas the hardening process in a microwave field significantly shortens the setting time.