Work on increasing the efficiency of heat exchangers used in car air conditioning systems may lead to a partial change in the construction of refrigeration systems. One of such changes is the use of smaller gas coolers, which directly translates into a reduction in the production costs of the entire system. The article presents the use of computational fluid dynamics methods to simulate the impact of changing the shape of an internal heat exchanger on the cooling efficiency with R744 as the refrigerant. Internal heat exchangers with different geometry of the outer channels were subjected to numerical analysis. The obtained results of calculations show temperature changes in inner and outer channels on the length of the heat exchanger.
An attempt was made to determine the vertical momentum and heat exchange in the near-ground atmosphere layer in the specific conditions of a sub-Antarctic island. For this purpose, some of the results of the measurements of temperature and wind speed carried out at the levels 10, 2, 0.5 and 0.05 m, during the IVth Antarctic Expedition of the Polish Academy of Sciences in March 1980, were used. The vertical gradients of the two elements and the wind stress and the heat flux in the layers under study, were calculated.
On the basis of the results of direct measurements, the conduction properties of the yearly behaviour of the halt flux conducted in the tundra soil (S) are determined. In general, the cooling period of the soil profile lasted from August to January, with highest intensity in October (S = —4.8 Wm-2). A rapid intensification of the heat exchange in the soil occurred in July (S = 7.4 Wm-2 ) . The 24-hour values of S were found to vary greatly (from 19 Wm-2 to 32 Wm-2). For chosen days, relationships were determined among the particular elements of the heat balance of the active layer.
The objective of the study reported in this paper was to determine the effect of structure on thermal power of cast-iron heat exchangers which in this case were furnace chambers constituting the main component of household fireplace-based heating systems and known commonly as fireplace inserts. For the purpose of relevant tests, plate-shaped castings were prepared of gray iron with flake graphite in pearlitic matrix (the material used to date typically for fireplace inserts) as well as similar castings of gray cast iron with vermicular graphite in pearlitic, ferritic-pearlitic, and ferritic matrix. For all the cast iron variants of different structures (graphite precipitate shapes and matrix type), calorimetric measurements were carried out consisting in determining the heat power which is quantity representing the rate of heat transfer to the ambient environment. It has been found that the value of the observed heat power was affected by both the shape of graphite precipitates and the type of alloy matrix. Higher thermal power values characterize plate castings of gray iron with vermicular graphite compared to plates cast of the flake graphite gray iron. In case of plates made of gray cast iron with vermicular graphite, the highest values of thermal power were observed for castings made of iron with ferritic matrix.
The paper presents an experimental investigation of a silicone based heat exchanger, with passive heat transfer intensification by means of surface enhancement. The main objective of this paper was to experimentally investigate the performance of a heat exchanger module with the enhanced surface. Heat transfer in the test section has been examined and described with precise measurements of thermal and flow conditions. Reported tests were conducted under steady-state conditions for single-phase liquid cooling. Proposed surface modification increases heat flux by over 60%. Gathered data presented, along with analytical solutions and numerical simulation allow the rational design of heat transfer devices.
Geometry of plate heat exchangers (PHE) is characterized by a complex net of narrow channels. It enhances turbulence and results in better heat transfer performance. Theoretically, larger number of channels (plates) should proportionally increase the PHE heat power capacity. In practice a nonuniform massflow distribution in consecutive flow channels can significantly deteriorate the overall heat exchange performance. The flow maldistribution is one of the most commonly reported exploitation problems and is present in PHE with and without phase-change flows. The presented paper investigates numerically a flow pattern in PHE with evaporation of R410A refrigerant. Various sizes of PHE are considered. The paper introduces a robust methodology to transform the complicated geometry of a real 3D PHE to its 2D representation. It results in orders of magnitude faster calculations and allows for fast evaluation of different geometrical changes of PHE and their effect on flow maldistribution.
CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) computations are carried out in order to investigate the flow distribution and its influence on the heat transfer processes in the high-performance heat exchanger. The subject of this investigation is the classical model of the high-performance heat exchanger with elliptical tubes and rectangular fins. It is possible to find the flow domains where the heat transfer conditions are impaired due to the fully developed turbulent flow. Therefore, the considerable thermal loads occur that may cause the breakdown of the heat exchanger. The emphasis of this investigation is put on the zones and the locations where the tubes are not properly fed with liquid, that result in occurrence of cavitation.
The paper illustrates a case study of fluid selection for an internal combustion engine heat recovery organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system having the net power of about 30 kW. Various criteria of fluid selection are discussed. Particular attention is paid to thermodynamic performance of the system and human safety. The selection of working fluid for the ORC system has a large impact on the next steps of the design process, i.e., the working substance affects the turbine design and the size and type of heat exchangers. The final choice is usually a compromise between thermodynamic performance, safety and impact on natural environment. The most important parameters in thermodynamic analysis include calculations of net generated power and ORC cycle efficiency. Some level of toxicity and flammability can be accepted only if the leakages are very low. The fluid thermal stability level has to be taken into account too. The economy is a key aspect from the commercial point of view and that includes not only the fluid cost but also other costs which are the consequence of particular fluid selection. The paper discusses various configurations of the ORC system – with and without a regenerator and with direct or indirect evaporation. The selected working fluids for the considered particular power plant include toluene, DMC (dimethyl carbonate) and MM (hexamethyldisiloxane). Their advantages and disadvantages are outlined.
This contribution deals with the heat transfer parameters and pressure losses in heat exchange sets with six geometrical arrangements at low Re values (Re from 476 to 2926). Geometrical arrangements were characterised by the h/H ratio ranging from 0.2 to 1.0. The experiments used the holographic interferometry method in real time. This method enables visible and quantitative evaluations of images of temperature fields in the examined heat exchange. These images are used to determine the local and mean heat transfer parameters. The obtained data were used to determine the Colburn j-factor and the friction coefficient f. The measured values show that by using the profiled heat exchange surfaces and inserting regulating tubes, an intensification of heat transfer (increase of Num, and/or j) was achieved. However, pressure losses recorded a significant increase (increase of f).
Helical coil heat exchangers are widely used in a variety of industry applications such as refrigeration systems, process plants and heat recovery. In this study, the effect of Reynolds number and the operating temperature on heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop for laminar flow conditions was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a shell and tube heat exchanger with a copper coiled pipe (4 mm ID, length of 1.7 m and coil pitch of 7.5 mm) in the temperature range from 243 to 273 K. Air – propan-2-ol vapor mixture and coolant (methylsilicone oil) flowed inside and around the coil, respectively. The fluid flow in the shell-side was kept constant, while in the coil it was varied from 6.6 to 26.6 m/s (the Reynolds number below the critical value of 7600). Results showed that the helical pipe provided higher heat transfer performance than a straight pipe with the same dimensions. The convective coefficients were determined using theWilson method. The values for the coiled pipe were in the range of 3–40 W/m2 ·K. They increased with increasing the gas flow rate and decreasing the coolant temperature.
Energy efficiency improvement and ecological safety of heat power plants are urgent problems, which require scientifically grounded approaches and solutions. These problems can be solved partly within the presented heat-and-power cycles by including contact energy exchange equipment in the circuits of existing installations. A significant positive effectis obtained in the contact energy exchange installations, such as gas-steam installation ‘Aquarius’ and the contact hydrogen heat generator that also can use hydrogen as a fuel. In these plants, the efficiency increases approximately by 10–12% in comparison with traditional installations, and the concentration of toxic substances, such as nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in flue gas can be reduced to 30 mg/m3and to 5 mg/m3, respectively. Moreover, the plants additionally ‘generate’ the clean water, which can be used for technical purposes.