Movement is one of the most spectacular phenomena involving glaciers. Deter- mining glacier surface velocity is now a routine aspect of glaciological studies. These are geodetic methods, especially satellite positioning, that most frequently is applied in such work. Using the Hans Glacier (SW Spitsbergen) as an example, the presented paper is an attempt at defining the time resolution limit of changes in the velocity determined using GPS positioning technology. A test network was established in the area of the examined glacier in order to define the size and variability of the main satellite positioning biases as well as to define their impact on determining position and the calculated velocity. A discussion relating to achieved accuracy (differentiated from measurement precision) for baselines of a length of several kilometres in the high latitudes has also been presented.
The paper deals with large-scale crustal deformation due to hydrological surface loads and its influence on seasonal variation of GPS estimated heights. The research was concentrated on the area of Poland. The deformation caused by continental water storage has been computed on the basis of WaterGAP Hydrological Model data by applying convolution of water masses with appropriate Green’s function. Obtained site displacements were compared with height changes estimated from GPS observations using the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method. Long time series of the solutions for 4 stations were used for evaluation of surface loading phenomena. Good agreement both in amplitude and phase was found, however some discrepancies remain which are assigned to single point positioning technique deficiencies. Annual repeatability of water cycle and demanding procedure for computing site displacements for each site, allowed to develop a simple model for Poland which could be applied to remove (or highly reduce) seasonal hydrological signal from time series of GPS solutions.
The presented preliminary research concerns the accuracy and reliability of new ultra-fast static positioning module – POZGEO-2 – in case of processing GPS data collected outside the ASG-EUPOS network. Such a case requires extrapolation of the network-derived atmospheric corrections which limits correction accuracy and, therefore, has adverse effect on the carrier phase ambiguity resolution. The presented processing tests are based on processing 5-minute long observing sessions and show that precise positioning can be supported up to 35 km from the ASG-EUPOS borders. This means that precise positioning with POZGEO-2 module can be assured for the most of the border areas of Poland.
The sequential method of integrating navigational parameters obtained from non-simultaneous navigational measurements is presented. The proposed algorithm of position coordinates estimation is general and includes two modes of data processing – from simultaneous and non-simultaneous measurements. It can be used in hybrid receivers of radionavigation systems integrating non-homogeneous position lines or in integrated navigation systems, particularly in receivers combining the measurements of various satellite navigation systems.
The paper presents national report of Poland for IAG on positioning and applications. The selected research presented was carried out at leading Polish research institutions and concern precise multi-GNSS satellite positioning – relative and absolute – and also GNSS-based ionosphere and troposphere modelling and studies. The research resulted in noticeable advancements in these subjects confirmed by the development of new algorithms and methods. New and improved methods of precise GNSS positioning were developed, and also GNSS metrology was studied. New advanced troposphere models were presented and tested. In particular, these models allowed testing IPW variability on regional and global scales. Also, new regional ionosphere monitoring web-based services were developed and launched.
GNSS systems are susceptible to radio interference despite then operating in a spread spectrum. The commerce jammers power up to 2 watts that can block the receiver function at a distance of up to 15 kilometers in free space. Two original methods for GNSS receiver testing were developed. The first method is based on the usage of a GNSS simulator for generation of the satellite signals and a vector signal RF generator for generating different types of interference signals. The second software radio method is based on a software GNSS simulator and a signal processing in Matlab. The receivers were tested for narrowband CW interference, FM modulated signal and chirp jamming signals and scenarios. The signal to noise ratio usually drops down to 27 dBc-Hz while the jamming to signal ratio is different for different types of interference. The chirp signal is very effective. The jammer signal is well propagated in free space while in the real mobile urban and suburban environment it is usually strongly attenuated.
The paper presents the results of real time measurements of test geodetic control network points using the RTK GPS and RTX Extended technologies. The Trimble RTX technology uses the xFill function, which enables real measurements without the need for constant connection with the ASG EUPOS system reference stations network. Comparative analyses of the results of measurements using the methods were performed and they were compared with the test control network data assumed to be error-free. Although the Trimble RTX technology is an innovative measurement method which is rarely used now, the possibilities it provides in surveying works, including building geodetic control networks, are satisfactory and it will certainly contribute to improving the organisation of surveying works.
Monitoring of permanent stations that make up the reference frame is an integral part of the geodesists work. Selection of reference stations is based on analysis of parameters characterizing them (hardware, coordinates’ stability, mounting, location). In this paper, we took into account phase residual as an indicator of unmodelled signal. Phase residuals were computed based on ASG-EUPOS and EPN observation processing. The results show the connection between the method of mounting the antenna and the residuals. We have reviewed multipath effect at ASG-EUPOS stations, and chosen those which are characterized by the highest value of phase residual. The results show that LC phase residual is a good factor to characterize site’s solutions’ reliability. For majority of sites RMS values were less than 10 mm. Modulations associated with multipath effect were observed for few ASG-EUPOS sites only. Phase residuals are distributed specifically for sites, which antennas are mounted on pillars (more common for EPN sites). For majority of analysed sites phase residual distribution was similar for different days and did not depend directly on atmosphere condition.
In this paper, two techniques for calculating the geoid-to-quasigeoid separation are employed. One of them is GPS/Levelling customary method as a criterion where the geoid undulation and height anomaly are computed by subtracting the ellipsoid height attained via GPS from the orthometric height and normal height, respectively. Another approach is Sjöberg’s equation. We have used of the ICGEM website for definition of the variables of the Sjöberg’s equation, as the applied reference model is the EGM2008 global geopotential model and WGS84 reference ellipsoid. The investigations are performed over the stations of the GPS/Leveling network related to three selected areas in desert, mountain and flatland namely the Lout, Zagros and Khuzestan in Iran and afterward the correlation coefficient between the geoid-to-quasigeoid separation calculated using the satellite data in Sjöberg’s equation and GPS/Levelling method is estimated. The results indicate a straight correlation between the estimated separations from the two methods as its value for the Lout is 0.754, for the Zagros is 0.497 and for the Khuzestan is 0.659. consequently, using the satellite data in Sjöberg’s equation for the regions where there are not the GPS/Levelling and land gravity data, specially for the even areas, yield a satisfactory response of the geoidto-quasigeoid separation.
The paper expounds relevant results of some of the present author’s experi- ments defining the strapdown IMU sensors’ errors and their propagation into and within DGPS/IMU. In order to deal with this problem, the author conducted both the laboratory and field-based experiments. In the landborne laboratory the stand-alone Low-Cost IMU MotionPak MKII was verified in terms of the accelerometer bias, scale factor, gyroscope rotation parameters and internal temperature cross-correlations. The waterborne field-trials based on board dedicated research ships at the lake and at the busy small sea harbour were augmented by the landborne ones. These experiments conducted during the small, average, and high dynamics of movement provided comparative sole- GPS, stand-alone DGPS and integrated DGPS/IMU solution error analysis in terms of the accuracy and the smoothness of the solution. This error estimation was also carried on in the context of the purposely-erroneous incipient DGPS/IMU initialisation and alignment and further in the circumstances of on-flight alignment improvement in the absence of the signal outages. Moreover, the lake-waterborne tests conducted during extremely low dynamics of movement informed about the deterioration of the correctly initialised DGPS/IMU solution with reference to the stand-alone DGPS solution and sole- GPS solution. The above-mentioned field experiments have checked positively the DGPS /MKI research integrating software prepared during the Polish/German European Union Research Project and modified during the subsequent Project supported by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research.