Spitsbergen glaciers react rapidly to changes in the polar environment, which is expressed in differences in extent of their fronts and surface geometry. The Scott Glacier, which is situated in the NW part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land, is an example of the glacier that has undergone almost continuous recession since the Little Ice Age, interrupted by surges. The variations in recession are characterised based on multiannual data with particularly consideration of the period 1990–2005 and the season 2005/2006. Acceleration of front recession and lowering the surface was found only within the tongue up to a height of about 220 m a.s.l. Whereas, in the area situated in the zone of rock steps and above in the ablation zone, the change of glacier surface ablation (Dh) has been recorded compared to the mean annual recession for the period 1990–2005. Moreover, for the upper firn field, the positive surface ablation (DhS7 = +0.19 m) was observed. As the result of progressive reduction of the Scott Glacier mass, with the participation of other factors (bedrock relief among others), new surfaces of roche moutonnée are uncovering particularly in the tongue zone.
Climate atlases summarize large sets of quantitative and qualitative data and are results of complex analytical cartographic work. These special geographical publications summarize long term meteorological observations, provide maps and figures which characterise different climate elements. Visual information is supplemented with explanatory texts. A lot of information on short and long term changes of climate elements were provided in published Lithuanian atlases (Atlas of Lithuanian SDR, 1981; Climate Atlas of Lithuania, 2013), as well as in prepared but unpublished Lithuanian Atlas (1989) and in upcoming new national atlas publications (National Atlas of Lithuania. 1 st part, 2014). Climate atlases has to be constantly updated to be relevant and to describe current climate conditions. Comprehensive indicators of Lithuanian climate are provided in different cartographic publications. Different time periods, various data sets and diverse cartographic data analysis tools and visualisation methods were used in these different publications.
This study investigates cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the plant leaves of juglans regia (walnut) and cydonia oblanga (quince) trees related to traffic emissions on the highway roadside. The plant leaf samples were collected from 20 sites on the D-100 Highway roadside and washed with deionized water before analyzed. Determination of Cd was carried out using an inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometer after microwave digestion of the samples. Cd concentration on the plant leaves was found to be between 0.04–0.11 mg/kg. In order to determine the traffic-based emissions, vehicles were counted and an emission inventory was prepared. 0.18 tons of Cd was found to be delivered into the atmosphere every day. Cd accumulation depends on traffic density because there were no residential area and industrial plants. The distribution of Cd accumulation caused by traffic emissions was mapped by using a geographic information system (GIS). The maps showed that the Cd accumulation was high in the areas near the highway and then gradually decreased by moving away from the highway.
Mining activity influence on the environment belongs to the most negative industrial influences. Land subsidence can be a consequence of many geotectonic processes as well as due to anthropogenic interference with rock massif in part or whole landscape. Mine subsidence on the surface can be a result of many deep underground mining activities. The presented study offers the theory to the specific case of the deformation vectors solution in a case of disruption of the data homogeneity of the geodetic network structure in the monitoring station during periodical measurements in mine subsidence. The theory of the specific solution of the deformation vector was developed for the mine subsidence at the Košice-Bankov abandoned magnesite mine near the city of Košice in east Slovakia. The outputs from the deformation survey were implemented into Geographic Information System (GIS) applications to a process of gradual reclamation of whole mining landscape around the magnesite mine. After completion of the mining operations and liquidation of the mine company it was necessary to determine the exact edges of the Košice-Bankov mine subsidence with the zones of residual ground motion in order to implement a comprehensive reclamation of the devastated mining landscape. Requirement of knowledge about stability of the former mine subsidence was necessary for starting the reclamation works. Outputs from the presented specific solutions of the deformation vectors confirmed the multi-year stability of the mine subsidence in the area of interest. Some numerical and graphical results from the deformation vectors survey in the Košice-Bankov abandoned magnesite mine are presented. The obtained results were transformed into GIS for the needs of the self-government of the city of Košice to the implementation of the reclamation works in the Košice-Bankov mining area.
Lexical knowledge sources are indispensable for research, education and general information. The transition of the reference works to the digital world has been a gradual one. This paper discusses the basic principles and structure of knowledge presentation, as well as user access and knowledge acquisition with specific consideration of contributions in German. The ideal reference works of the future should be interactive, optimally adapted to the user, reliable, current and quotable.
To guarantee food security and job creation of small scale farmers to commercial farmers, unproductive farms in the South 24 PGS, West Bengal need land reform program to be restructured and evaluated for agricultural productivity. This study established a potential role of remote sensing and GIS for identification and mapping of salinity zone and spatial planning of agricultural land over the Basanti and Gosaba Islands(808.314sq. km) of South 24 PGS. District of West Bengal. The primary data i.e. soil pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Sodium Absorption ratio (SAR) were obtained from soil samples of various GCP (Ground Control Points) locations collected at 50 mts. intervals by handheld GPS from 0–100 cm depths. The secondary information is acquired from the remotely sensed satellite data (LANDSAT ETM+) in different time scale and digital elevation model. The collected field samples were tested in the laboratory and were validated with Remote Sensing based digital indices analysisover the temporal satellite data to assess the potential changes due to over salinization.Soil physical properties such as texture, structure, depth and drainage condition is stored as attributes in a geographical soil database and linked with the soil map units. The thematic maps are integrated with climatic and terrain conditions of the area to produce land capability maps for paddy. Finally, The weighted overlay analysis was performed to assign theweights according to the importance of parameters taken into account for salineareaidentification and mapping to segregate higher, moderate, lower salinity zonesover the study area.
This paper reports on a morphometric analysis of land-terminating glaciers on southern and western Spitsbergen in the years 1936–2014. An attempt was made to estimate the deglaciation rate and the scale of its acceleration in the 21st century in the conditions of Arctic amplification. Satellite scenes and topographic map sheets were used for the study and were analyzed by means of remote sensing and GIS methods. The study covered 2000–2014 years and concluded that surface recession accelerated on average by a factor of 2.75 compared to the 1936–2000 period, while linear recession was 2.2 times faster. The greatest increase in the deglaciation rate can be observed in the case of glaciers faced to N and W sectors. The deglaciation process is the most advanced in the central part of the island, where small, compact mountain glaciers predominate. In recent years, a slowdown in the deglaciation processes in these glaciers was observed. The studies demonstrate that the deglaciation rate was mainly influenced by the basin relief determining the glacier geometry. The resultant fractal nature of the ice cover makes it highly vulnerable to the disintegration of complex glacial systems into smaller ones due to glacier thinning and the separation of outlets. The acceleration of the deglaciation rate in turn is modified by the climate factor, especially the impact of warming air masses from the N and W sectors where seas are becoming increasingly ice-free and, consequently, have an increasing heat capacity.
The cognitive aim of this study is to point to the optimum number of local government units and the optimum boundaries of spatial units in Poland with the assumption of minimizing the cumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. The methodological aim, in turn, is to present the use of the ArcGIS location-allocation tool for the purposes of delimitation processes as exemplified by administrative boundaries in Poland. The rationale for the implementation of this study is that number and the boundaries of units of all levels of Poland’s current territorial division are far from optimum in the light of minimization of accumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. It may be concluded that it would be justifiable to increase the number of voivodships from the current number of 16 to 18. Besides it would be necessary to introduce modifications in relation to units with regional functions. In contrast, the number of districts and communes should be reduced. A continuation of this research may go in the direction of including analysis of public transport network in the research, creating in this way a multimodal set of network data. This would illustrate, apart from the potential itself resulting from the infrastructure, also the actually existing connections.
This paper presents the proposition of cartographic presentation of the movable cultural heritage on interactive map. The original solution on how to link movable monuments with geographical space as well as the different types of spatial reference were described. The text shows both: the way of presentation of single movable monuments and collections of historical objects. The proposed solutions were based on the assumption that the number of heritage resources shown on the map is huge and, what is more, they can keep growing. So, the proposed solution must be able to apply for a resource of indeterminate size. For the presentation of the movable heritage the traditional methods of cartographic presentation, as well as interactive technologies were applied.
Land cover change (LCC) is important to assess the land use/land cover changes with respect to the development activities like irrigation. The region selected for the study is Vaal Harts Irrigation Scheme (VHS) occupying an area of approximately 36, 325 hectares of irrigated land. The study was carried out using Land sat data of 1991, 2001, 2005 covering the area to assess the changes in land use/land cover for which supervised classification technique has been applied. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) index was also done to assess vegetative change conditions during the period of investigation. By using the remote sensing images and with the support of GIS the spatial pattern of land use change of Vaal Harts Irrigation Scheme for 15 years was extracted and interpreted for the changes of scheme. Results showed that the spatial difference of land use change was obvious. The analysis reveals that 37.86% of additional land area has been brought under fallow land and thus less irrigation area (18.21%). There is an urgent need for management program to control the loss of irrigation land and therefore reclaim the damaged land in order to make the scheme more viable.
This paper studies the assessment of sensitivity to land degradation of Deliblato sands (the northern part of Serbia), as a special nature reserve. Sandy soils of Deliblato sands are highly sensitive to degradation (given their fragility), while the system of land use is regulated according to the law, consisting of three zones under protection. Based on the MEDALUS approach and the characteristics of the study area, four main factors were considered for evaluation: soil, climate, vegetation and management. Several indicators affecting the quality of each factor were identified. Each indicator was quantified according to its quality and given a weighting of between 1.0 and 2.0. ArcGIS 9 was utilized to analyze and prepare the layers of quality maps, using the geometric mean to integrate the individual indicator map. In turn, the geometric mean of all four quality indices was used to generate sensitivity of land degradation status map. Results showed that 56.26% of the area is classified as critical; 43.18% as fragile; 0.55% as potentially affected and 0.01% as not affected by degradation. The values of vegetation quality index, expressed as coverage, diversity of vegetation functions and management policy during the protection regime are clearly represented through correlation coefficient (0.87 and 0.47).
This study is aimed to investigate culturable airborne bacteria concentrations and the composition of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in eleven different locations on the basis of specific activities conducted within different parts of the European side of Istanbul. The highest bacterial levels were observed at the Bakirkoy station (1 100 CFU/m3) while the second highest levels were found at the Bahcelievler station (1 040 CFU/m3) in October; the lowest levels (10 CFU/m3) were measured at other different stations (Atakoy, Yesilkoy). Fifteen methicillin-resistant isolates [Staphylococcus hominis (n=11), S. cohnii spp. cohnii (n=2), S. sciuri (n=1), S. capitis spp. capitis (n=1)] were identified. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial resistance of these isolates, it was observed that the most common resistance was to penicillin (P) (n=11), doxycycline (DO) (n=4) and tetracycline (T) (n=5). None of the isolates was resistant to imipenem, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, vancomycin (IPM, AMC, VA). However, multiple antimicrobial resistance was found to be 26.7%. The results of this study revealed the importance of isolated methicillin-resistant staphylococci in the stations with densely active human population and traffic, for public health. As a result, the importance of resting along known shorelines, where culturable airborne bacteria concentrations are much lower, and its importance for human health have been emphasized.
Archaeology of north-eastern Poland has been poorly recognized owing to vast forest areas and numerous lakes. This particularly refers to the Warmian–Masurian Voivodship, where forest covers over 30% of its area. Prospection of forested areas has become possible in Poland just over 10 years ago with the Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). These techniques allow obtaining 3-D documentation of recognized and also unknown archaeological sites in the forested areas. Thanks to ALS/LiDAR prospection a significant number of archaeological structures have been identified also in the Warmia and Masuria regions. Among them oval-shaped hillforts, surrounded by perfectly spaced concentric moats and ramparts, located mainly on islands and in wetland areas, have raised particular attention. Based on field prospection and results of preliminary excavations, these objects have been considered as Iron Age hillforts. One of the best preserved objects of this type is on the Radomno Lake island, located several kilometres to the south of Iława town. Integrated geoarchaeological prospection of this hillfort emphasized benefits of using LiDAR in combination with results of geophysical prospection and shallow drillings. Applied methodology enabled to document the hillfort shape, and to study its geological structure and stratigraphy. The results clearly indicate that integration of LiDAR data with geophysical prospecting is indispensable in future archaeological surveys. It is a perfect tool for remote sensing of archaeological objects in forest areas, so far not available for traditional archaeology.