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Abstract

There are several infectious agents of domestic cattle that can also be present in free-living ruminant populations. These include bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) which are the causative agents of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine viral diarrhea, respectively. The study was conducted on serum samples from 59 red deer, 24 roe deer, and 3 fallow deer (86 in total), originating from two geographically separate areas of Poland. The samples were tested with commercially available ELISA tests for BoHV-1 and BVDV. The overall seroprevalence was 5.8% and 3.5%, respectively. All positive samples originated exclusively from red deer. Because of BoHV-1 ELISA cross reactivity with cervid herpesvirus 1 and 2 (CvHV-1 and -2) the nature of alphaherpesviruses infecting the sampled animals could not be assessed.
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Abstract

The study was aimed to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which can detect specifically Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1). The primers were designed based on the conserved sequence of FHV-1 glycoprotein B gene. The recombinant protein with reactogenicity was purified as coating antigen of the assay. The indirect ELISA, characterized by high sensitivity showed no cross-reaction with two types of feline virus, had detection limit at 1:2000 dilution. The positive rate of the assay, according to the determined cutoff value (0.25), was basically consistent with Feline Herpes Virus Antibody ELISA kit. In conclusion, the indirect ELISA with high repeatability and reproducibility can be used for detecting FHV-1, and can provide necessary support to related research.
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Abstract

The tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) causes widespread disease and has severe negative effects on the growth and yields of plants, especially those of the Solanaceae family. The consequences of residual toxicity and non-biodegradation of synthetic chemicals and pollution of the environment has led to investigations into new non-toxic and biological treatments to control plant viral diseases. Ethanolic extracts of Bowiea volubilis (bulbs), Cotyledon orbiculata (leaves), Gomphocarpus fruticosus (leaves), Merwilla plumbea (dry and fresh bulbs), Nerium oleander (leaves), and the fruits and leaves of Strophanthus speciosus, were evaluated against PVYNTN in vivo and in vitro. At a concentration of 20 mg · ml−1, ethanolic extracts of Strophanthus speciosus (leaves) and fruits (50 mg · ml−1) significantly reduced the expression of PVYNTN symptoms on tobacco plants in vitro without affecting the normal growth and development of the plant. Similarly, at 50 mg · ml−1, N. oleander, C. orbiculata and B. volubilis (fresh bulbs) and S. speciousus leaves at 20 mg · ml−1 extracts showed significant differences in PVYNTN symptoms in the in vivo experiment. Strophanthus speciosus leaf and fruit extracts showed significant inhibition in the in vitro and in vivo assays and demonstrated that S. speciosus has potential to be used as an antiphytoviral treatment.
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