Results of experimental and numerical investigations of wood chips drying are described in the paper. Experiments are carried out on two test facilities: a small laboratory rig and a larger pre-prototype dryer. Both facilities are thorough-circulation convective air dryers. The first one is a batch dryer, whereas the second one is a continuous dryer with wood chips flowing down by gravity from a charging hopper to a gutter with the aid of screw-conveyor. The latter is considered a half scale model (preprototype) for professional drying installations. A low feeding rate of wood chips into the pre-prototype dryer makes the process quasi-stationary and the difference between it and a batch drying is negligible. So, most experiments at this facility were carried out as batch dryers with non-agitated packed beds. The investigations exhibit the same linear correlation between the mass of evaporated water from the packed bed and the drying air velocity for both facilities. Numerical analysis of the drying process is conducted using the Ansys Fluent software enriched in drying capabilities by means of self-written procedures – user defined functions. Simulations confirmed a phenomenon of a drying front observed in the small laboratory rig. A thin layer of wood chips comprises the whole heat exchange and moisture evaporation phenomenon. The drying front travels downstream in the course of the process separating the already dried layer and still wet layer.
The coal fed to gravity enrichment consists of coals coming from different deposits and exploitation fronts. These coals differ in quality parameters, especially the amount of gangue (stone) changing over time. This results in the instability of work, especially jiggers, which have a relatively low accuracy assessed by probable scattering or imperfection rates. This deteriorates the quality of the concentrate obtained, the quality parameters of which change over time. The improvement of jiggers work would be possible by averaging the feed. This process is practically impossible due to the failure to design such a node during plant construction, which are, in most cases, directly related to the shaft. In the article, the authors propose to solve the process of averaging the feed before directing it to the enrichment process in jiggers by introducing its deshaling in vibratory- air separators of the FGX type.
This paper analyses the influence of the applied microwave power output on the intensification of drying in the context of process kinetics and product quality. The study involved testing samples of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.). Wood samples were dried in the microwave chamber at: 168 W, 210 W, 273 W, 336 W and 378 W power output level. For comparison, wood was dried convectively at 40 ◦C and 87% air relative humidity. The analysis of drying process kinetics involved nonlinear regression employing the Gompertz model. Dried samples were subjected to static bending tests in order to specify the influence of the applied microwave power on modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rapture (MOR). The obtained correlations of results were verified statistically. Analysis of drying kinetics, strength test results and Tukey’s test showed that the applied microwaves of a relatively low level significantly shortened the drying time, but did not cause a reduction in the final quality of dried wood, compared with conventional drying.
In this work, the influence of microwave drying parameters such as irradiation time and microwave power level on the properties of synthetic moulding sands is presented. Determination of compressive strength Rc s, shear strength Rt s and permeability Ps of synthetic moulding sands with the addition of two different bentonites, after drying process with variable microwave parameters were made. The research works were carried out using the microwave oven with regulated power range of the electromagnetic field. From the results obtained, the significant influence of both drying time and microwave power level on the selected properties of moulding sands was observed. In comparison to the conventional drying method, microwave drying allows to obtain higher compressive strength of the synthetic moulding sand. The influence of application microwave irradiation on permeability was not observed. Higher strength characteristics and shorter drying time are major advantages of application of the electromagnetic irradiation for drying of the synthetic moulding sand with regard to conventional drying method.
Work is being carried out on possibilities of limiting the content of mercury in hard coal products by gravity concentration of run-of-mine coal in the Branch of the Institute of Mechanized Construction and Rock Mining in Katowice and on the Faculty of Energy and Fuels of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. Under domestic industrial conditions, gravity concentration is carried out with heavy medium liquids and in jigs. Preliminary - pilot studies have shown the possibility of mercury removal also by using the dry deshaling method involving vibratory air separators. Mercury is mainly found in the pyrite and the rubble formed by the mineral carbon, but also in the organic carbon. Some of it is located in layers of coal roof fields, which in the course of their exploitation go to coal. The mercury removal efficiency during the gravity concentration process will depend on the decomposition of the listed components in the density fractions. The paper presents the results of investigations of total mercury and total sulphur content in the separated coal fractions from four mines. These contents were determined in fractions: –1.5 g/cm3 (conventionally clean coal – concentrate), 1.5–1.8 g/cm3 (conventionally middlings) and +1.8 g/cm3 (conventionally rock – waste). The results are summarized in Tables 3–5 and in Charts 1–4. Conversely, graphs 5-8 show the relationship between mercury content and total sulphur content in the tested coal samples. The study, which can be called a preliminary analysis of the susceptibility of the coals to gravity concentration, showed that the dry deshaling method on the vibratory air separators would allow significant amounts of mercury accumulated in the middlings and waste fractions to be removed.
Nowadays, actions allowing for a reduction of anthropogenic mercury emission are taken worldwide. Great emphasis is placed on reducing mercury emission from the processes of energochemical coal conversion, mainly from the coal combustion processes. One of the methods which enable a reduction of anthropogenic mercury emission is the removal of mercury from coal before its conversion. It should be pointed out that mercury in hard coal may occur both in the organic and mineral matter. Therefore, a universal method should allow for the removal of mercury, combined in both ways, from coal. In the paper, a concept of the hybrid mercury removal process from hard coal was presented. The idea of the process is based on the combination of the coal cleaning process using wet or dry methods (first stage) and the thermal pretreatment process at a temperature in the range from 200 to 400 °C (second stage). In the first stage, a part of mercury occurring in the mineral matter is removed. In the second stage, a part of mercury occurring in the organic matter as well as in some inorganic constituents characterized by a relatively low temperature of mercury release is removed. Based on the results of the preliminary research, the effectiveness of the decrease in mercury content in coal in the hybrid process was estimated in the range from 36 to 75% with the average at the level of 58%. The effect of the decrease in mercury content in coal is much more significant when mercury content is referred to a low heating value of coal. So determined, the effectiveness was estimated in the range from 36 to 75% with the average at the level of 58%.
Charnockites – i.e., orthopyroxene-bearing felsic rocks – were formed in a deep-seated dry environment, either under plutonic or high-grade metamorphic conditions. Most charnockites known from the crystalline basement of Poland appear to be of Mesoproterozoic age (1.50–1.54 Ga), cogenetic with the Suwałki Anorthosite Massif, and associated with mangerite and granite members forming the AMCG suite of the Mazury Complex. Genetically distinct rocks, characterised by the presence of anhydrous minerals, e.g., orthopyroxene and garnet, were also recognised along 592 m of the Łanowicze PIG-1 borehole section, within the AMCG suite. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date the complexly zoned zircons. The ages of crystallisation of the charnockite protoliths from various depths at 1837±7, 1850±9, 1842±6, and 1881±16 Ma makes these rocks the oldest dated crust within this part of the Polish basement. The Łanowicze PIG-1 borehole section bears components from neighbouring tectonic domains known from Lithuania: the West and Middle Lithuanian (WL/MLD) domains considered as a continental margin at 1.84–1.86 Ga and the fragmented Latvia-East Lithuania (LEL) domain, where the oldest continental crust was generated at c. 1.89– 1.87 Ga. The metamorphic zircon overgrowths document a high-grade event at 1.79 Ga and then constrained at 1.5 Ga. Dating of pre-Mesoproterozoic crust cryptic within the AMCG Mazury Complex provides valuable information on the nature of the pre-existing blocks formed during the long lasting Svecofennian orogeny.