The task of electroacoustic devices is a transmission of audio signals. The transmitted signal should be distorted as little as possible. Nonlinear distortions are the distortions depending on signal level. The types of nonlinear distortions as well as their measures are presented in the paper. The weakest device in an electroacoustic chain is a loud-speaker. It causes the greatest degradation of the signal. It is usually the most nonlinear part of the electroacoustic system. The nonlinearities in loudspeakers are described in details. Other types of nonlinear distortions as transient intermodulation in power amplifiers and distortions caused by the A/C sampling are also presented.
Transnational communication lines differ from other objects of the economy both in form and size, and in the task of their geodetic support, which requires the development of special methods for its solution. One of the ways of geodetic support with high accuracy is the choice of optimal (with minimal distortion) geodetic projection for the territories of transnational communication lines. Composite projection is one of the most appropriate methods to choose the optimal projection. This article presents the argumentation and results of experimental calculations for the implementation of optimal geodetic projection for transnational communication lines in Azerbaijan.
The paper addresses the problem of the automatic distortion removal from images acquired with non-metric SLR camera equipped with prime lenses. From the photogrammetric point of view the following question arises: is the accuracy of distortion control data provided by the manufacturer for a certain lens model (not item) sufficient in order to achieve demanded accuracy? In order to obtain the reliable answer to the aforementioned problem the two kinds of tests were carried out for three lens models. Firstly the multi-variant camera calibration was conducted using the software providing full accuracy analysis. Secondly the accuracy analysis using check points took place. The check points were measured in the images resampled based on estimated distortion model or in distortion-free images simply acquired in the automatic distortion removal mode. The extensive conclusions regarding application of each calibration approach in practice are given. Finally the rules of applying automatic distortion removal in photogrammetric measurements are suggested
An analytical expression for the standard deviation of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) estimation is derived. It applies to the case where the estimator uses sine fitting. It is shown that, in common circumstances, it is inversely proportional to the actual value of THD, the signal-to-noise ratio and the square root of the number of samples. The proposed expression is validated both with numerical simulations and an experimental setup using a Monte Carlo procedure.
This paper describes a new and efficient method for quantifying and detection of the source of distortion caused by a single customer in a case when many other customers exist in a power grid. It is based on measuring distortion power, a component of apparent power that only exists with a nonlinear load. Different definitions for distortion power calculation are investigated. All these definitions show without doubt that the proposed method is feasible. Moreover, this method allows to develop fair and reliable billing schemes for controlling harmonic pollution. Measurement and simulation results confirm the effectiveness and applicability of the method. The proposed solution is suitable for software/hardware upgrade of existing electronic power-meters.
In this paper we introduce a self-tuning Kalman filter for fast time-domain amplitude estimation of noisy harmonic signals with non-stationary amplitude and harmonic distortion, which is the problem of a contactvoltage measurement to which we apply the proposed method. The research method is based on the self-tuning of the Kalman filter's dropping-off behavior. The optimal performance (in terms of accuracy and fast response) is achieved by detecting the jump of the amplitude based on statistical tests of the innovation vector of the Kalman filter and reacting to this jump by adjusting the values of the covariance matrix of the state vector. The method's optimal configuration of the parameters was chosen using a statistical power analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms competing methods in terms of speed and accuracy of the jump detection and amplitude estimation.
The quality of the supplied power by electricity utilities is regulated and of concern to the end user. Power quality disturbances include interruptions, sags, swells, transients and harmonic distortion. The instruments used to measure these disturbances have to satisfy minimum requirements set by international standards. In this paper, an analysis of multi-harmonic least-squares fitting algorithms applied to total harmonic distortion (THD) estimation is presented. The results from the different least-squares algorithms are compared with the results from the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm. The algorithms are assessed in the different testing states required by the standards.
The paper attempts to analyze distortions of cast iron and cast steel rings, after heat treatment cycles. The factors influencing distortion are: chemical composition of material, sample geometry, manufacturing process, hardenability, temperature and heat treatment method. Standard distortion tests are performed on C-ring samples. We selected a ring-model, which approximate the actual part, so that findings apply to gear rings. Because distortion depends on so many variables, this study followed strictly defined procedures. The research was started by specifying the appropriate geometry of the samples. Then, the heat treatment was conducted and samples were measured again. The obtained results allow to determine the value of the resulting distortion and their admissibility. The research will be used to evaluate the possibility of using the material to produce parts of equipment operated under extreme load conditions.
Along with the increase in the use of nonlinear electronic devices, e.g. personal computers, power tools and other electrical appliances, the requirements for uninterruptible power supplies are constantly growing. This paper proposes a method and deep analysis of results viable for checking how single-phase uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) cope with nonlinear circuits under varying power loads in terms of electric energy quality.Various classes of single-phase UPS systems with different topologies were tested, for instance line-interactive and double conversion (online) single-phase UPS devices. Furthermore, measurements were carried out in view of a power source – loads were supplied both from a power grid and UPS built-in battery. Juxtaposition of the obtained results such as a THDU, THDI (Total Harmonic Distortion) percentage ratio of input/output voltage and current, a power factor and crest factor volume etc. of the tested UPS systems indicated major differences in their performance during laboratory tests.
The paper presents a method of construction of cylindrical and azimuthal equalarea map projections of a triaxial ellipsoid. Equations of a triaxial ellipsoid are a function of reduced coordinates and functions of projections are expressed with use of the normal elliptic integral of the second kind and Jacobian elliptic functions. This solution allows us to use standard methods of solving such integrals and functions. The article also presents functions for the calculation of distortion. The maps illustrate the basic properties of developed map projections. Distortion of areas and lengths are presented on isograms and by Tissot’s indicatrixes with garticules of reduced coordinates. In this paper the author continues his considerations of the application of reduced coordinates to the construction of map projections for equidistant map projections. The developed method can be used in planetary cartography for mapping irregular objects, for which tri-axial ellipsoids have been accepted as reference surfaces. It can also be used to calculate the surface areas of regions located on these objects. The calculations were carried out for a tri-axial ellipsoid with semi-axes a = 267:5 m, b = 147 m, c = 104:5 m accepted as a reference ellipsoid for the Itokawa asteroid.
The main purpose of this investigation was to measure the effect of contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS) on distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) in twenty human ears, for a ratio of primary tones f2/f1 = 1.22 and a wide frequency range of f2 (1.4-9 kHz), for two intensity levels of primary tones (L1 = 60 dB SPL; L2 = 50 dB SPL and L1 = 70 dB SPL; L2 = 60 dB SPL) and two intensity levels of CAS (50 and 60 dB SPL). It was found that in the presence of CAS, in the majority of cases the DPOAE level decreased (suppression), but it might also increase (enhancement) or remain unchanged depending on the frequency. The mean suppression level of the component of the frequency fDP = 2f1 f2 might be approximated by a linearly decreasing function of the f2 frequency of primary tones. The slope of this function was negative and increased with an increase of the contralateral stimulation level. The higher was the contralateral noise level the greater was the suppression. For the fDP level below about 15 dB SPL, suppression was observed in a substantial number of measurement cases (in about 85% of all measured cases on average). When the fDP level was higher than 15 dB SPL, only suppression (not enhancement) was observed.
Modern techniques of castings production, including moulding sands production, require a strict technological regime and high quality materials. In the case of self-hardening moulding sands with synthetic binders those requirements apply mainly to sand, which adds to more than 98% of the whole moulding sand mixture. The factors that affect the quality of the moulding sands are both chemical (SiO2 , Fe2O3 and carbonates content) and physical. Among these factors somewhat less attention is paid to the granulometric composition of the sands. As a part of this study, the effect of sand quality on bending strength Rgu and thermal deformation of self-hardening moulding sands with furfural and alkyd resin was assessed. Moulding sands with furfural resin are known  to be the most susceptible to the sand quality. A negative effect on its properties has, among others, high content of clay binder and so-called subgrains (fraction smaller than 0,1mm), which can lead to neutralization of acidic hardeners (in the case of moulding sands with furfuryl resin) and also increase the specific surface, what forces greater amount of binding agents. The research used 5 different quartz sands originating from different sources and characterized with different grain composition and different clay binder content.
The constantly developing and the broadly understood automation of production processes in foundry industry, creates both new working conditions - better working standards, faster and more accurate production - and new demands for previously used materials as well as opportunities to generate new foundry defects. Those high requirements create the need to develop further the existing elements of the casting production process. This work focuses on mechanical and thermal deformation of moulding sands prepared in hot-box technology. Moulding sands hardened in different time periods were tested immediately after hardening and after cooling. The obtained results showed that hardening time period in the range 30-120 sec does not influence the mechanical deformation of tested moulding sands significantly. Hot distortion tests proved that moulding sands prepared in hot-box technology can be characterized with stable thermal deformation up to the temperature of circa 320oC.
This paper describes a three phase shunt active power filter with selective harmonics elimination. The control algorithm is based on a digital filter bank. The moving Discrete Fourier Transformation is used as an analysis filter bank. The correctness of the algorithm has been verified by simulation and experimental research. The paper includes exemplary results of current waveforms and their spectra from a three phase active power filter.
This document analyses qualities of methods used for testing dynamical parameters of Digital-to-Analog Converters (DAC) using a multi-frequency signal. As the source for these signals, Amplitude Modulated (AM) and Frequency Modulated (FM) signals are used. These signals are often used in radio engineering. Results of the tests, like Effective Number of Bits (ENOB), Signal-to-Noise and Distortion (SINAD), are evaluated in the frequency domain and they are compared with standard results of Sine Wave FFT test methods. The aim of this research is firstly to test whether it is possible to test a DAC using modulated signals, secondly to reduce testing time, while estimating band performance of DAC.
Harmonic minimisation in hybrid cascaded multilevel inverter involves complex nonlinear transcendental equation with multiple solutions. Hybrid cascaded multilevel can be implemented using reduced switch count when compared to traditional cascaded multilevel inverter topology. In this paper Biogeographical Based Optimisation (BBO) technique is applied to Hybrid multilevel inverter to determine the optimum switching angles with weighted total harmonic distortion (WTHD) as the objective function. Optimisation based on WTHD combines the advantage of both OMTHD (Optimal Minimisation of Total Harmonic Distortion) and SHE (Selective Harmonic Elimination) PWM. WTHD optimisation has the benefit of eliminating the specific lower order harmonics as in SHEPWM and minimisation of THD as in OMTHD. The simulation and experimental results for a 7 level multilevel inverter were presented. The results indicate that WTHD optimization provides both elimination of lower order harmonics and minimisation of Total Harmonic Distortion when compared to conventional OMTHD and SHE PWM. Experimental prototype of a seven level hybrid cascaded multilevel inverter is implemented to verify the simulation results.