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Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze diesel fuel consumption in Poland and identification of the causes of changes in the needs of individual sectors of the economy for this type of fuel. Time range of the researches covered from 2004 to 2014. Data from the Central Statistical Office (CSO) were the source material. In the years 2004-2014 diesel consumption in Poland was 111 553 thousand tons. In 2014 domestic consumption of diesel fuel was 11 203 thousand tons and it was more than 2 times higher than the level of consumption of this fuel in 2004. The highest consumption of diesel in Poland in the period took place in 2012. The increase in the consumption of diesel fuel in Poland had benefited from increased demand for diesel in transport, which became a result of an increased amount of transport services. The share of transport in the consumption of diesel fuel in Poland for the period 2004- 2014 was about 75%. Another area, which consumes the largest quantity of DF in Poland is agriculture. Consumption of this fuel in agriculture in the years 2004- 2014 increased by 7%. DF consumption in industry and the manufacturing sector it was variable. DF biggest consumption in these sectors of the economy in the period was recorded in 2004. The analyzes did not allow to identify the specific causes of changes in the use of DF in the industry and manufacturing. In transport it showed a relationship between the consumption of diesel fuel and the amount of transport work and the transported cargo.
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Abstract

This paper focuses on the radio direction finding (DF) in multipath environments. Based on the measurement results presented in the open literature, the authors analyse the influence of environment transmission properties on the spread of the signal reception angle. Parameters that define these properties are rms delay and angle spreads. For these parameters, the mutual relationship is determined. This relationship is the basis for assessment of the required number of bearings that minimize the influence of the environment on the accuracy of DF procedure. In the presented analysis, the statistical properties of the signal reception angle are approximated by the normal distribution. The number of bearings versus the rms delay spread is presented as the main objective of this paper. In addition, a methodology of the bearings’ spatial averaging that provides better estimation of the reception angle is shown.
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