The article concerns computer modelling of processes in cooling systems of internal combustion engines. Modelling objectives and existing commercial programs are presented. It also describes Author’s own method of binding graphs used to describe phenomena in the cooling system of a spark ignition engine. The own model has been verified by tests on the engine dynamometer. An example of using a commercial program for experimental modelling of an installation containing a heat accumulator is presented.
The paper presents investigation into the single water microjet surface cooling producing evaporating film. Reported tests were conducted under steady state conditions. Experiments were conducted using the nozzle size of 70 and 100 μm respectively. In the course of investigations obtained were experimental relations between heat flux and wall superheating. It was proved that the phenomenon is similar to that of pool boiling but the boiling curves are showing a smaller value of critical heat flux (CHF) that the stagnant pool boiling. Values of CHF are also reduced with decreasing liquid subcooling. Theoretical model of surface cooling by evaporating microjet impingement in the stagnation point was described theoreticaly. Results of experiments were compared with predictions by the model showing a good consistency.
Work on increasing the efficiency of heat exchangers used in car air conditioning systems may lead to a partial change in the construction of refrigeration systems. One of such changes is the use of smaller gas coolers, which directly translates into a reduction in the production costs of the entire system. The article presents the use of computational fluid dynamics methods to simulate the impact of changing the shape of an internal heat exchanger on the cooling efficiency with R744 as the refrigerant. Internal heat exchangers with different geometry of the outer channels were subjected to numerical analysis. The obtained results of calculations show temperature changes in inner and outer channels on the length of the heat exchanger.
Financial management in a capital group is very important for its growth and operation. Liquidity risk management can be analyzed regarding their static and dynamic dimensions. The process can also be facilitated by cash management products offered by financial institutions. One of the mechanisms influencing the increase in cash management efficiency of a capital group examined in this article is cash pooling, notably multicurrency cash pooling. This type of product is based frequently on the virtual consolidation. Its essence is the consolidation of cash available on the accounts of individual system participants. Using this solution the capital group can manage surpluses and shortages achieving the “economies of scale” (cost reduction and maximization of interest income). Available one the banking services market solutions offer consolidation in USD, EUR, CHF, GBP. The article presents the definition of cash pooling and the essence of its operation. Based on the literature analysis, the article lists types of cash pooling and benefits associated with it. Following on from the solution described, the article presents a model of multicurrency cash pooling in a capital group, including steps necessary to implement it and proposed technical solutions. The solution is described, can be also successfully applied in capital groups of energy sector. Using multicurrency consolidation is very useful solution in deposits management for transactions concluded in international commodities exchanges.
Development of electronics, which aims to improve the functionality of electronic devices, aims at increasing the packing of transistors in a chip and boosting clock speed (the number of elementary operations per second). While pursuing this objective, one encounters the growing problem of thermal nature. Each switching of the logic state at the elementary level of an integrated circuit is associated with the generation of heat. Due to a large number of transistors and high clock speeds, higher heat flux is emitted by the microprocessor to a level where the component needs to be intensively cooled, or otherwise it will become overheated. This paper presents the cooling of microelectronic components using microjets.
Modern gas turbine systems operate in temperatures ranging from 1200°C to even 1500°C, which creates bigger problems related to the blade material thermal strength. In order to ensure appropriate protection of the turbine blades, a sophisticated cooling system is used. Current emphasis is placed on the application of non-stationary flow effects to improve cooling conditions, e.g., the unsteady-jet heat transfer or the heat transfer enhancement using high-amplitude oscillatory motion. The presented research follows a similar direction. A new concept is proposed of intensification of the heat transfer in the cooling channels with the use of an acoustic wave generator. The acoustic wave is generated by an appropriately shaped fixed cavity or group of cavities. The phenomenon is related to the coupling mechanism between the vortex shedding generated at the leading edge and the acoustic waves generated within the cavity area. Strong instabilities can be observed within a certain range of the free flow velocities. The presented study includes determination of the relationship between the amplitude of acoustic oscillations and the cooling conditions within the cavity. Different geometries of the acoustic generator are investigated. Calculations are also performed for variable flow conditions. The research presented in this paper is based on a numerical model prepared using the Ansys CFX-17.0 commercial CFD code.
This work discusses the heat transfer aspects of the neonate’s brain cooling process carried out by the the device to treat hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This kind of hypothermic therapy is undertaken in case of improper blood circulation during delivery which causes insufficient transport of oxygen to the brain and insufficient cooling of the brain by circulating blood. The experimental setup discussed in this manuscript consists of a special water flow meter and two temperature sensors allowing to measure inlet and outlet water temperatures. Collected results of the measurements allowed to determine time histories of the heat transfer rate transferred from brain to the cooling water for three patients. These results are then analysed and compared among themselves.
The paper presents the results of a numerical study devoted to the hydraulic properties of a network of parallel triangular microchannels (hydraulic diameter Dh = 110 um). Previous experimental investigations had revealed that pressure drop through the microchannels system dramatically increases for the Reynolds number exceeding value of 10. The disagreement of the experimental findings with the estimations of flow resistance based on the assumption of fully developed flow were suspected to result from the so-called scale effect. Numerical simulations were performed by using the classical system of flow equations (continuity and Navier-Stokes equations) in order to explain the observed discrepancies. The calculations showed a very good agreement with the experimental results proving that there is no scale effect for the microchannels considered, i.e. the relevance of the constitutive flow model applied was confirmed. It was also clearly indicated that the excessive pressure losses in the high Reynolds number range are due to the secondary flows and separations appearing in several regions of the microchannel system.
Cooling of the hot gas path components plays a key role in modern gas turbines. It allows, due to efficiency reasons, to operate the machines with temperature exceeding components' melting point. The cooling system however brings about some disadvantages as well. If so, we need to enforce the positive effects of cooling and diminish the drawbacks, which influence the reliability of components and the whole machine. To solve such a task we have to perform an optimization which makes it possible to reach the desired goal. The task is approached in the 3D configuration. The search process is performed by means of the evolutionary approach with floatingpoint representation of design variables. Each cooling structure candidate is evaluated on the basis of thermo-mechanical FEM computations done with Ansys via automatically generated script file. These computations are parallelized. The results are compared with the reference case which is the C3X airfoil and they show a potential stored in the cooling system. Appropriate passage distribution makes it possible to improve the operation condition for highly loaded components. Application of evolutionary approach, although most suitable for such problems, is time consuming, so more advanced approach (Conjugate Heat Transfer) requires huge computational power. The analysis is based on original procedure which involves optimization of size and location of internal cooling passages of cylindrical shape within the airfoil. All the channels can freely move within the airfoil cross section and also their number can change. Such a procedure is original.
This paper focuses on the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop with minichannels and minipump. The one-dimensional separate model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop with minichannels and minipump has been used in calculations. The latest correlations for minichannels available in literature have been applied. This model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporator, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. A numerical analysis of the mass flux and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been presented.
The problem presented in this paper refers to the concepts applied to the design of supercritical steam turbines. The issue under the investigation is the presence of a cooling system. Cooling systems aim to protect the main components of the turbines against overheating. However the cooling flows mix with the main flow and modify the expansion line in the steam path. This affects the expansion process in the turbine and changes the performance when compared to the uncooled turbine. The analysis described here investigates the range of the influence of the cooling system on the turbine cycle. This influence is measured mainly through the change of the power generation efficiency. The paper explains the approach towards the assessment of the cooling effects and presents results of the modeling for three supercritical steam cycles.
This paper presents a study of the effect of the modification and cooling rate on the grain count α(Al) in the Al-5Cu alloy. Research was performed on castings with walls thickness between 3 mm and 25 mm. Cooling curves were recorded to determine the cooling rate and the degree of undercooling at the beginning of solidification. It has been shown that cooling rate increases exponentially as the wall thickness of casting decreases. Moreover it has been demonstrated that the cooling rate of castings changes within a wide range (21ºC/s - 1ºC/s) when the wall thickness changes from 3 up to 25 mm. Metallographic examinations revealed primary grains (primary α(Al) grains). The paper show that the relationship between the grain count and the degree of undercooling (for non-modified and modified alloys) can be represented by the equation N = Nv = np·exp(-b/ΔTα), based on the Weibull's distribution of the size of nucleation sites.
The paper proposes a methodology useful in verification of results of dilatometric tests aimed at determination of temperatures defining the start and the end of eutectoid transformation in the course of ductile cast iron cooling, based on quenching techniques and metallographic examination. For an industrial melt of ductile cast iron, the effect of the rate of cooling after austenitization at temperature 900°C carried out for 30 minutes on temperatures TAr1 start and TAr1 end was determined. The heating rates applied in the study were the same as the cooling rates and equaled 30, 60, 90, 150, and 300°C/h. It has been found that with increasing cooling rate, values of temperatures TAr1 start and TAr1 end decrease by several dozen degrees.
During design of the casting products technology, an important issue is a possibility of prediction of mechanical properties resulting from the course of the casting solidification process. Frequently there is a need for relations describing mechanical properties of silumin alloys as a function of phase refinement in a structure and a porosity fraction, and relations describing phase refinement in the structure and the porosity fraction as a function of solidification conditions. The study was conducted on castings of a 22 mm thick plate, made of EN AC-AlSi7Mg0,3 alloy in moulds: of quartz sand, of quartz sand with chill and in permanent moulds. On the basis of cooling curves, values of cooling rate in various casting parts were calculated. The paper also presents results of examination of distance between arms in dendrites of a solid solution α (DASL), precipitations length of silicon in an eutectic (DlSi) and gas-shrinkage porosity (Por) as a function of cooling rate. Statistical relations of DASL, DlSi, Por as a function of cooling rate and statistical multiparameter dependencies describing mechanical properties (tensile strength, yield strength, elongation) of alloy as a function of DASL, DlSi and Por are also presented in the paper.
A simplified isoperibol calorimetry method for measuring specific heat in solids is described. Taking advantage of the classical Nernst dependency the specific heat is calculated from time-domain temperature curves registered for a sample forced heating and natural cooling phase. In order to improve accuracy of the measurements a correction factor, taking into account the heat transferred to the surrounding, is introduced along with a procedure of statistical elimination of unavoidable measurement deviations. The method is implemented in a simple and straightforward measuring system involving no vacuum calorimeter. The method is applicable for quick and routine specific heat measurements performed on small solid dielectric or metallic specimens at near-room temperature. Test results of various materials used commonly in electrical engineering are demonstrated and discussed as well as comparison to drop calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry reference measurements is included. The overall repeatability of the test method and the simplified apparatus is estimated as not worse than 2.6%.
The flat horizontal polymer loop thermosyphon with flexible transport lines is suggested and tested. The thermosyphon envelope consists of a polyamide composite with carbon based high thermal conductive micro-, nanofilaments and nanoparticles to increase its effective thermal conductivity up to 11 W/(m°C). Rectangular capillary mini grooves inside the evaporator and condenser of thermosyphon are used as a mean of heat transfer enhancement. The tested working fluid is R600. Thermosyphon evaporator and condenser are similar in design, have a long service life. In this paper three different methods (transient, quasi-stationary, and stationary) have been used to determine the thermophysical properties of polymer composites used as an envelope of thermosyphon, which make it possible to design a wide range of new heat transfer equipment. The results obtained contribute to establish the viability of using polymer thermosyphons for ground heat sinks (solar energy storage), gas-liquid heat exchanger applications involving seawater and other corrosive fluids, efficient cooling of superconductive magnets impregnated with epoxy/carbon composites to prevent wire movement, enhance stability, and diminish heat generation.
Micro-channel heat sinks are used in a wide variety of applications, including microelectronic devices, computers and high-energy-laser mirrors. Due to the high power density that is encountered in these devices (the density of delivered electrical power up to a few kW/cm2) they require efficient cooling as their temperatures must generally not exceed 100 ◦C. In the paper a new design for micro-channel heat sink (MCHS) to be used for cooling laser diode arrays (LDA) is considered. It is made from copper and consisting of 37 micro-channels with length of 9.78 mm, width of 190 μm and depth of 180 μm with the deionized water as a cooling medium. Mathematical and numerical models of the proposed design of the heat sink were developed. A series of thermofluid numerical simulations were performed for various volumetric flow rates of the cooling medium, its inlet temperature and different thermal power released in the laser diode. The results show that the LDA temperature could be decreased from 14 to 17% in comparison with earlier proposed design of the heat sink with the further drop in temperature obtained by applying indium instead of gallium arsenide as the soldering material between the LDA and MCHS interface. Moreover, it was found that the maximum temperature, and therefore the thermal resistance of the considered heat sink, could be decreased by increasing the coolant flow rate.
Scaling and corrosion associated with the use of natural hard water in cooling towers during recirculation pose great problems from both economical and technical points of view, such as decreased system efficiency and increased frequency of chemical cleaning. Treated municipal wastewater (MWW) is a promising alternative to freshwater as power plant cooling system makeup water, especially in arid regions. In this work, hybrid systems of salt precipitation (SP), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) were investigated, as potential pretreatment processes for wastewater reuse as cooling water in the planned Jordan nuclear power plants. The As-Samra wastewater was used to calculate the potential of carbonate and sulfate scale formation. The results were compared to scale potentials from Palo Verde wastewater. Four cases were investigated; SP, NF, SP-RO and NF-RO. The SP pretreatment cases showed the highest monovalent to divalent ratio because of a high removal of Ca and Mg and addition of Na from the chemicals of the SP step. The NF pretreatment cases, showed the lowest calcium sulfate scale potential and this potential decreases with the % pretreatment. The scale amount increases very slightly with concentration times when the SP and NF product is desalinated by RO step.
The work presents results of the investigations of effect of intensive cooling of alloy AC-AlSi7Mg with alloy additions on microstructure and mechanical properties of the obtained casts. The experimental casts were made in ceramic molds preliminarily heated to 180°C, into which AC-AlSi7Mg with alloy additions was poured. Within implementation of the research, a comparison was made of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the casts obtained in ceramic molds cooled at ambient temperature and the ones intensively cooled in a cooling liquid. Kinetics and dynamics thermal effects recorded by the TDA method were compared. Metallographic tests were performed with the use of optical microscope and strength properties of the obtained casts were examined: UTS, Elongation and HB hardness.
The aim of the performed experiments was to determine the influence of deformation and of austenitization temperature on the kinetics of phase transformations during cooling of high-carbon steel (0.728 wt. % C). The CCT and DCCT diagrams for austenitization temperature 940°C and DCCT diagram for austenitization temperature 1000°C were constructed with the use of dilatometric tests. On the basis of obtained results, a featureless effect of austenitization temperature and deformation on the kinetics of phase transformations during cooling of investigated steel was observed. Critical cooling rates for the transformation of martensite in microstructure fluctuated from 5 to 7°C · s–1 (depending on the parameters of austenitization and deformation), but only at cooling rates higher than 8°C · s–1 a dominant share of martensite was observed in the investigated steel, which resulted in the significant increase of hardness.
The current numerical study focuses on the feasibility of furnishing thermal comfort in a structure, by using paraffin wax stored on a plate below the ceiling in a multi-storey building. The method is aimed to reduce energy demands at the increasing thermal loads. In summer, in daytime, walls of the building are exposed to the ambient thermal load, and heat transferred inside is absorbed by the melting wax. The study is numerical. It relates to temperature variations outside and inside, coupled with heat conduction and accumulation in walls, with radiation between the surfaces, with natural convection of air inside and melting of the wax at the ceiling. Fins spacing on the storage plate, visualization of the melting process, and its parametric investigation provide an insight into the physical phenomena. Temperature and flow fields were investigated for 3 mm and 12 mm thick layers of wax. At the specified conditions of the present study a 3 mm layer provides thermal comfort for most of the day, while a 6 mm layer may suffice for the entire day. Fluent 6.3 software was used in the computations.
Optimization of vane positions in a mechanical draft wet-cooling tower is presented in this paper. The originally installed, equally spaced, vanes produced non-uniform air velocity distribution reducing the performance of the fill of the cooling tower. A 2D CFD model of the tower has been created. The model has then been used to determine the objective function in the optimization procedure. The selected objective function was the standard deviation of the velocity of air entering the fill. The Goal Driven Optimization tools of the ANSYSWorkbench 2.0 have been used for the optimization and the ANSYS Fluent 13.0 as a flow solver. The optimization allowed reduction of the objective function and producing a more uniform air flow.
Cast irons are good examples of materials which are more sensitive to chemical composition and production conditions. In this research to improve casting quality, solidification and nucleation process in grey cast iron was investigate. In particular, attempts have been made to rationalize variation in eutectic cells with nucleation sites and eutectic solidification undercooling. Four castings with different diameter and similar chemical composition and pouring temperature and different inoculant percentage was casted. The cooling curve and maximum and minimum undercooling for each castings was measured. Also optical metallography and image analyzer has been used to determine the average eutectic cells diameter, and linear and surface densities, and volume density was calculated. The results of this research show a competitive behavior between nucleation sites and eutectic undercooling. Higher nucleation sites and higher eutectic undercooling cause higher eutectic cell density. But increasing nucleation sites by introducing inoculants to molten metal, is accompanied with reduction in eutectic undercooling. It means that inoculation and undercooling have opposite effect on each other. So, to achieve maximum cell density, it is necessary to create an optimization between these parameters.
The presence of the chunky graphite is unwanted in the cast iron with the spheroidal graphite for this significantly lowers the properties of the ductile iron. This shape of the graphite is formed as the result of the slow cooling rate of the castings with large thermal point and also due to the presence of the elements which suppress the formation of the spheroidal graphite and support formation of the chunky graphite. The spheroidal graphite present in the ductile iron assures the excellent mechanical properties, while the chunky graphite significantly reduces those properties of the ductile iron. Therefore it is of importance to assume conditions under which prevented is the formation of the chunky graphite. The casts were carried out under the conditions of the regular operation of the foundry and tested were various types of modifiers and inoculators and also pre-inoculators containing the elements suppressing the formation of the chunky graphite (Al, Sb a Ba). Applied were also the chromium breaker core to suppress the formation chunky graphite which was present in the structure in the places after the feeders elimination. As whole, executed were eight casts with various types of the modifiers and inoculators.