A significant part of the knowledge used in the production processes is represented with natural language. Yet, the use of that knowledge in computer-assisted decision-making requires the application of appropriate formal and development tools. An interesting possibility is created by the use of an ontology that is understandable both for humans and for the computer. This paper presents a proposal for structuring the information about the foundry processes, based on the definition of ontology adapted to the physical structure of the ongoing technological operations that make up the process of producing castings.
The article presents chosen aspects of foundry engineering of the settlement dwellers, including the archaeometric characteristics and metal science analysis of the artefacts, as well as an attempted reconstruction of the production organization. Discovered in Szczepidło (Greater Poland), the foundry workshop is unique in Central European Bronze Age. This workshop foundry operated roughly XIV-XII Century BC. Its production is evidenced by the presence of markers of the whole production cycle: semi-finished and finished products, production waste, fragments of crucibles and casting ladles with traces of usage, and tools. On this basis, the alloys and foundry technologies used have been described. The analysis of foundry technology of copper alloys in the settlement area was carried out by observing the surface and structure of the products, semi-finished artefacts and fragments of crucibles by applying optical microscopy (OM), confocal microscopy (CLSM) and Xray radiography (RT). The investigations of compositions were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (EDS).
During excavation of the cremation cemetery of urnfield culture in Legnica at Spokojna Street (Lower Silesia, Poland), dated to 1100-700 BC, the largest - so far in Poland – a collection of casting moulds from the Bronze Age was discovered: three moulds for axes casting made out of stone and five moulds for casting sickles, razors, spearhead and chisels, made out of clay. This archaeological find constituted fittings of foundrymen’s graves. In order to perform the complete analysis of moulds in respect of their application in the Bronze Age casting technology analytical methods, as well as, computer aided methods of technological processes were used. Macroscopic investigations were performed and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method was used to analyse the chemical composition and metal elements content in mould cavities. Moulds were subjected to three-dimensional scanning and due to the reverse engineering the geometry of castings produced in these moulds were obtained. The gathered data was used to perform design and research works by means of the MAGMA5 software. Various variants of the pouring process and alloys solidification in these archaeological moulds were simulated. The obtained results were utilised in the interpretation of the Bronze Age casting production in stone and clay moulds, with regard to their quality and possibility of casting defects occurrence being the result of these moulds construction. The reverse engineering, modelling and computer simulation allowed the analysis of moulds and castings. Investigations of casting moulds together with their digitalisation and reconstruction of casting technology, confirm the high advancement degree of production processes in the Bronze Age.
The present article deals with the possibility of using the reverse engineering method for the production of prototype molds by Patternless process technology. Article describes method how to obtain virtual model by using a 3D scanner. Article also explains principle of the Patternless process technology, which is based on the milling mold cavity using CNC machining equipment. The aim of the research is the use of advanced technologies that speed up and facilitate the process of production prototype mold. The practical result of the presented experiment is bronze casting, which serves as a foot rest bracket on historic bike.
Small additions of Cr, Mo and W to aluminium-iron-nickel bronze are mostly located in phases κi (i=II; III; IV),and next in phase α (in the matrix) and phase γ2. They raise the temperature of the phase transformations in aluminium bronzes as well as the casts’ abrasive and adhesive wear resistance. The paper presents a selection of feeding elements and thermal treatment times which guarantees structure stability, for a cast of a massive bush working at an elevated temperature (650–750°C) made by means of the lost foam technology out of composite aluminium bronze. So far, there have been no analyses of the phenomena characteristic to the examined bronze which accompany the process of its solidification during gasification of the EPS pattern. There are also no guidelines for designing risers and steel internal chill for casts made of this bronze. The work identifies the type and location of the existing defects in the mould’s cast. It also proposes a solution to the manner of its feeding and cooling which compensates the significant volume contraction of bronze and effectively removes the formed gases from the area of mould solidification. Another important aspect of the performed research was establishing the duration time of bronze annealing at the temperature of 750°C which guarantees stabilization of the changes in the bronze microstructure – stabilization of the changes in the bronze HB hardness.
For the die casting conditions of aluminium bronzes assumed based on the literature data, a thick-walled bush was cast, made of complex aluminium bronze (Cu-Al-Fe-Ni-Cr). After the cast was removed from the mould, cracks were observed inside it. In order to identify the stage in the technological production process at which, potentially, the formation of stresses damaging the continuity of the microstructure created in the cast was possible (hot cracking and/or cold cracking), a computer simulation was performed. The article presents the results of the computer simulation of the process of casting the material into the gravity die as well as solidifying and cooling of the cast in the shape of a thick-walled bush. The simulation was performed with the use of the MAGMA5 program and by application of the CuAl10Ni5,5Fe4,5 alloy from the MAGMA5 program database. The results were compared with the location of the defects identified in the actual cast. As a result of the simulation of the die-casting process of this bush, potential regions were identified where significant principal stresses accumulate, which can cause local hot and cold cracking. Until now, no research has been made of die-cast aluminium bronzes with a Cr addition. Correlating the results of the computer simulation validated by the analysis of the actual cast made it possible to clearly determine the critical regions in the cast exposed to cracking and point to the causes of its occurrence. Proposals of changes in the bush die casting process were elaborated, in order to avoid hot tearing and cold cracking. The article discusses the results of preliminary tests being a prologue to the optimization of the die-casting process parameters of complex aluminium bronze thick-walled bushs.