The aim of the paper is to identify which factors influence the production of crude oil in Africa and what it means for the investments in oil production on this continent in the future. In order to identify these factors it is necessary to create a function of production. A number of variables have been chosen, which are likely to have an influence on the level of exploitation, such as the price of oil, oil consumption in Africa, oil import by the US, etc. The estimation of the function was based on the statistical analysis of empirical data. For the years 1980–2015 the linear regression model was estimated using the method of ordinary least squares (OLS) and econometric software – GRETL. In order to find the best model the academic research on the global oil market has been taken into account and a variety of statistical and econometric tests have been made. According to the literature on the subject, the production of crude oil in Africa is mostly affected by two players – Europe and the US. The first includes the member states of the OPEC. There are also countries of West Africa which in the past exported most of their production to the US. The model shows that the situation has changed after the “shale revolution”, which reduced the level of imported oil and consequently the level of African production. Moreover, an interesting trend has been noticed, namely that when oil prices go up, the oil production in Africa decreases. The reason for this phenomenon is that high oil prices make American shale plays more profitable than West African petroleum basins. The model aggregating macroeconomic indicators and statistics is a very useful management tool and it reveals the problems of the efficiency of investments in oil production in Africa.
The purpose of this article is to establish a frame for arranging and classifying observations relating to the indigenous knowledge and oral traditions of the San people of southern Africa, mainly in Namibia. Oral literature of the San people serve, therefore, as a valuable source for re-constructing and reinforcing a positive collective identity of their history and cultural diversity. Several forms of expression such as folklore, poems, plants' names and personal narratives will be provided.
Recent studies have shown that over half of the world’s population lives in urban areas, with the number of people living in slums growing by over 20 million per year and people living in urban areas lacking access to adequate sanitation. This study presents a review of the challenges facing fecal sludge management (FSM). A globally relevant issue in developing urban centers, especially in selected developing countries in West Africa was discussed. Some key ﬁndings of the review are that effective sanitation in developing areas depends on the chain of services and that one of the largest problems in sanitation is FSM. This study presents the initial steps toward understanding the main issues involving FSM in developing cities of West Africa. Results are intended to be used as a support for decisions on policies, strategies for FSM, and investments for improved treatment facilities in the region. The study suggests that governments and private sector organizations should develop adequate measures for handling fecal sludge.