GPR method is perfectly suited for recognizing of sedimentary facies diversity in shallowly occurring sediments if there is a contrast of electrical properties between and/or within each layer. The article deals with the issue of the correlation between GPR surveys results and sedimentological analyses. As a result of this correlation a conceptual model of depositional systems of studied areas was developed. Studies were performed in two areas located in central Poland, where glacial deposits formed in the Middle Polish (Saalian) Glaciation are present. The study was based on 49 sediment samples and 21 GPR profiles. Analyses of lithofacies as well as granulometric and mineralogical composition of deposits of collected samples were carried out, showing the diversity of glacial deposits in both study sites. During GPR measurements shielded antenna with a frequency of 500 MHz was used which allowed high-resolution mapping of the internal structure of deposits and to identify four characteristic radar facies. Correlation of GPR profiles with point, one-dimensional sedimentological studies allowed the unambiguous interpretation of the GPR image and draw conclusions about the formation environment of individual units. Geophysical and sedimentological data obtained during study provide a new and detailed insight into selected glacial deposits in central Poland.
Abstract Echinoderms from the Badenian (Middle Miocene) of the Fore-Carpathian Basin of western Ukraine are facies restricted. The Mykolaiv Beds, stratigraphically older, yielded the starfish Astropecten forbesi (complete skeletons), two genera of sand dollars (Parascutella, Parmulechinus), and numerous other echinoids of the genera Psammechinus , Echinocyamus, Spatangus, Hemipatagus, Echinocardium, Clypeaster, Echinolampas, and Conolampas. The stratigraphically younger, calcareous Ternopil Beds yielded Eucidaris (complete coronae, isolated spines), Arbacina , Brissus, and Rhabdobrissus. Sixteen species of echinoids are distinguished and/or commented. A new brissid, Rhabdobrissus tarnopolensis sp. nov., is established. A mass occurrence of some species (Psammechinus dubius and Hemipatagus ocellatus) contrasts with that of mass aggregations (sand dollars and Echinocardium leopolitanum) by dynamic events in selected layers of proximal tempestites. Of special note is the occurrence of very small specimens, interpreted as juveniles (‘babies’) having been swept out of their restricted biotopes (‘nurseries’). Some species hitherto regarded as of Early Miocene age, and the problem of their persistence beyond the Fore-Carpathian Basin and/or migration into that basin during the Middle Miocene transgression are discussed.
The paper examines the contemporary discussion of the concept of ‘national hero’. As the subject of analysis interpretations of the role of Roman Dmowski, the leader of Polish nationalist movement in the first half of 20th century, in the contemporary political and historical discussion in Poland was chosen. On that example the way in which political life is changing the previous assessment and meaning of the ‘national hero’ is observed.
Cytological evaluation of bone marrow smears stained by May-Grünwald Giemsa method was performed. The smears came from 20 fallow deer (Dama dama) 3 days old divided into 2 groups each consisting of 10 animals. The experimental group (E) received intramuscularly selenium and vitamin E at a dose of 3.0 ml (tocopherol acetate – 50 mg, sodium selenite – 0.5 mg, solvent - 1 ml) in the 3rd day of age. The control group (C) did not receive any supplementation or placebo. For hematological analyzes blood was collected three times: on 0, 15th and 25th day of the experiment. Serum concentration of selenium and vitamin E was determined using high perfor- mance liquid chromatography and glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) by kinetic method. On the 15th day after supplementation, a statistically significant increase in the percentage of erythroblastic cell line was observed in bone marrow smears. At that time, the increase in GSH-Px activity in the E group was also observed, reaching the value of 165.3 U/gHb, which was statisti- cally significant. The percentage of proerythroblasts (8.23% in group E and 5.02% in group C) differed significantly between groups at the 25th day after supplementation. This study revealed that supplementation of selenium and vitamin E resulted in an increase in the number of erythro- cytes to an average of 13.5 (˟ 10¹²/l) in the experimental group on 25th day with a significant increase in hemoglobin to 193 g/l in the experimental group.
Abstract Biscutella laevigata L. is known as a Tl hyperaccumulator. In Poland Biscutella laevigata occurs in the Tatra Mts (Western Carpathians) and on the calamine waste heap in Bolesław near Olkusz (Silesian Upland). The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether plants of both populations were able to accumulate an elevated amount of thallium in their tissues. The plants were cultivated in calamine soil in a glasshouse for a season and studied at different ages – from 2-week-old seedlings to 10-month-old adults. Additionally, the plants were grown for ten weeks in calamine soil with EDTA to enhance Tl bioavailability. The total content of Tl in plant tissues after digestion was determined by ICP-MS, whereas its distribution in leaves was studied by LA-ICP-MS. Of the total content of Tl in the soil in the range of (15.2–66.7) mg∙kg−1d.m., only (1.1–2.1) mg∙kg−1d.m. was present in a bioavailable form. The mean content in all the plants grown on the soil without EDTA was 98.5 mg∙kg−1d.m. The largest content was found in leaves – 164.9 mg∙kg−1d.m. (max. 588.2 mg∙kg−1d.m.). In the case of plants grown on the soil enriched with EDTA, the mean content in plants increased to 108.9 mg∙kg−1d.m., max. in leaves – 138.4 mg∙kg−1d.m. (max. 1100 mg∙kg−1d.m.). The translocation factor was 6.1 in the soil and 2.2 in the soil with EDTA; the bioconcentration factor amounted to 10.9 and 5.8, respectively. The plants from both populations did not contain a Tl amount clearly indicating hyperaccumulation (100–500 mg∙kg−1d.m.), however, high (>1) translocation and bioconcentration factors suggest such an ability. It is a characteristic species-wide trait; B. laevigata L. is a facultative Tl hyperaccumulator. The largest Tl amount was located at the leaf base, the smallest at its top. Thallium also occurred in trichomes, which was presented for the first time; in this way plants detoxify Tl in the above-ground parts. Leaves were much more hairy in the Bolesław plants. This is an adaptation for growth in the extreme conditions of the zinc-lead waste heap with elevated Tl quantity.
The objective of this paper is to present a modified structure and a training algorithm of the recurrent Elman neural network which makes it possible to explicitly take into account the time-delay of the process and a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm for such a network. In MPC the predicted output trajectory is repeatedly linearized on-line along the future input trajectory, which leads to a quadratic optimization problem, nonlinear optimization is not necessary. A strongly nonlinear benchmark process (a simulated neutralization reactor) is considered to show advantages of the modified Elman neural network and the discussed MPC algorithm. The modified neural model is more precise and has a lower number of parameters in comparison with the classical Elman structure. The discussed MPC algorithm with on-line linearization gives similar trajectories as MPC with nonlinear optimization repeated at each sampling instant.
The Cao Bang Basin is the northernmost of the basins related to the Cao Bang-Tien Yen Fault Zone in northern Vietnam. The basin is filled with a thick series of continental deposits. However, the exact age of the sedimentary basin infill has been under discussion for a long time. Because of new published data, the authors have decided to revisit this basin. Palynological data has allowed us to assign the Cao Bang Basin infill to the Lower Oligocene PC1 complex of the Shangcun Fm. (southern China). Among the saccate grains of gymnosperms, the domination of Cathaya and Pinus was observed, whereas angiosperms are represented by Carya, Celtis, Hammamelidaceae, Ulmus and also Pterocarya, Quercus, the Castanea–Castanopsis–Lithocarpus group, and the Loranthaceae. Among pteridophytes occur Laevigatosporites, Osmundaceae, and Pteris. The sedimentological features of the Cao Bang Basin are distinct from those of other basins from the Cao Bang-Tien Yen Fault Zone. The basin is filled with a wide variety of clastic deposits, from some of coarse-grained, alluvial-fan origin, through sandy beds of fluvial origin up to fine, organic-rich lacustrine deposits. The coarse-grained lithofacies are built of clasts derived mainly from local sources. The sandstones from the basin equally are submature or immature. They contain a lot of lithoclasts, the composition of which depends on the sample location within the basin. The potential source area is composed of older sedimentary units and of granitic rocks. The geochemical samples studied reflect the geochemical composition of silicic source rocks with only a minor contribution of basic components. The succession that fills the basin is interpreted as a typical fill for relatively long-lasting evolving half-graben or strike-slip basins. Moreover, the basin is partly occupied by a subsequent present-day sedimentary basin of Quaternary age.
This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of sublethal doses of glyphosate on physiological parameters of a common ornamental plant Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta). The herbicide was applied in the following doses: 720 g ⋅ ha–1 (standard field dose), 144 g ⋅ ha–1, 28.8 g ⋅ ha–1, and 14.4 g ⋅ ha–1, in the form of a spraying treatment of plants in a specialist spraying chamber. The net assimilation rate and leaf greenness index were then determined. Herbicide application in the sublethal doses, i.e. below 720 g ⋅ ha–1, caused disorders in both analyzed physiological parameters of plants. The glyphosate dose of 144 g ⋅ ha–1 elicited transient disorders in the leaf greenness index. In turn, the use of the lower doses (28.8 g ⋅ ha–1 and 14.4 g ⋅ ha–1) caused a short-term increase in the net photosynthesis rate in the plants which was accompanied by a decreased value of the leaf greenness index. Study results demonstrated the effect of sublethal doses of glyphosate as a stress factor in parameters associated with the process of photosynthesis in plants.
The aim of this study was to measure the NO level in boar semen held in a liquid state and to determine its putative relation to spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content. Generally, the percentage of spermatozoa which generated nitric oxide gradually increased, while NO level in the surrounding medium declined during the liquid preservation. NO generation in semen preserved in BTS was higher as compared to those in Androhep®Plus. We demonstrated the positive correlation between the NO level in fresh spermatozoa and their quality. We also showed negative correlation between nitric oxide level in spermatozoa preserved in BTS and sperm cells motility as well as plasma membrane integrity. Results obtained in this study confirm that NO may affect sperm physiology in a dualistic manner.
Archaeology of north-eastern Poland has been poorly recognized owing to vast forest areas and numerous lakes. This particularly refers to the Warmian–Masurian Voivodship, where forest covers over 30% of its area. Prospection of forested areas has become possible in Poland just over 10 years ago with the Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). These techniques allow obtaining 3-D documentation of recognized and also unknown archaeological sites in the forested areas. Thanks to ALS/LiDAR prospection a significant number of archaeological structures have been identified also in the Warmia and Masuria regions. Among them oval-shaped hillforts, surrounded by perfectly spaced concentric moats and ramparts, located mainly on islands and in wetland areas, have raised particular attention. Based on field prospection and results of preliminary excavations, these objects have been considered as Iron Age hillforts. One of the best preserved objects of this type is on the Radomno Lake island, located several kilometres to the south of Iława town. Integrated geoarchaeological prospection of this hillfort emphasized benefits of using LiDAR in combination with results of geophysical prospection and shallow drillings. Applied methodology enabled to document the hillfort shape, and to study its geological structure and stratigraphy. The results clearly indicate that integration of LiDAR data with geophysical prospecting is indispensable in future archaeological surveys. It is a perfect tool for remote sensing of archaeological objects in forest areas, so far not available for traditional archaeology.