Numerical values of the NRTL equation parameters for calculation of the vapour - liquid - liquid equilibria (VLLE) at atmospheric pressures have been presented for 5 ternary mixtures. These values were fitted to the experimental VLLE and vapour - liquid equilibrium (VLE) data to describe simultaneously, as accurately as possible, the VLE and the liquid - liquid equilibria (LLE). The coefficients of this model called further NRTL-VLL were used for simulations of n-propanol dehydration via heterogeneous azeotropic distillation. The calculations performed by a ChemCAD simulator were done for 4 mixtures using hydrocarbons, ether and ester as an entrainer. In majority simulations the top streams of the azeotropic column had composition and temperature similar to the corresponding experimental values of ternary azeotropes. The agreement between the concentrations of both liquid phases formed in a decanter and the experimental values of the LLE was good for all four simulations. The energy requirements were the most advantageous for the simulation with di-npropyl ether (DNPE) and isooctane. Simulations were performed also for one mixture using the NRTL equation coefficients taken from the ChemCAD database. In that case the compositions of the liquid organic phases leaving the decanter differed significantly from the experimental LLE data.
A method of parameters fitting to the experimental vapour - liquid - liquid equilibrium (VLLE) data is presented for the NRTL and the Uniquac equations for six quaternary mixtures. The same equations but with coefficients taken from the simulator Chemcad database were also used for calculation of the VLLE for the same mixtures. The calculated equilibrium temperatures and compositions for all the three phases were compared with the experimental data for these four cases. The investigated models were also applied for calculation of the compositions and temperatures of ternary azeotropes occurring in the considered quaternary mixtures. The computed values were compared with the experimental ones to appreciate the model's accuracy and to confirm whether the model correctly predicts the presence of homo- or heteroazeotrope. The NRTL equation with coefficients fitted to the VLLE data proved to be the most accurate model. For the mixtures containing water, ethanol and two different hydrocarbons this model shows particularly high accuracy. In three cases the mean deviations between the calculated and measured temperatures do not exceed 0.25 K, and for the fourth mixture the difference equals 0.33. Besides, the mean deviations between the calculated and the measured concentrations in the gas and liquid phases, with one exception do not exceed 1 mole %.