The main objective of this study is to improve the ultrasound image by employing a new algorithm based on transducer array element beam pattern correction implemented in the synthetic transmit aperture (STA) method combined with emission of mutually orthogonal complementary Golay sequences. Orthogonal Golay sequences can be transmitted and received by different transducer elements simultaneously, thereby decreasing the time of image reconstruction, which plays an important role in medical diagnostic imaging. The paper presents the preliminary results of computer simulation of the synthetic aperture method combined with the orthogonal Golay sequences in a linear transducer array. The transmission of long waveforms characterized by a particular autocorrelation function allows to increase the total energy of the transmitted signal without increasing the peak pressure. It can also improve the signal-to-noise ratio and increase the visualization depth maintaining the ultrasound image resolution. In the work, the 128-element linear transducer array with a 0.3 mm pitch excited by 8-bits Golay coded sequences as well as one cycle at nominal frequencies of 4 MHz were used. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of the phantoms is presented to demonstrate the benefits of a coded transmission. The image reconstruction was performed using the synthetic STA algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function.
The paper presents an overview of theoretical aspects of ultrasound image reconstruction techniques based on the circular Radon transform inversion. Their potential application in ultrasonography in a similar way as it was successfully done in the x-ray computer tomography is demonstrated. The methods employing Radon transform were previously extensively explored in the synthetic aperture radars, geophysics, and medical imaging using x-ray computer tomography. In this paper the main attention is paid to the ultrasound imaging employing monostatic transmit-receive configuration. Specifically, a single transmit and receive omnidirectional source placed at the same spatial location is used for generation of a wide-band ultrasound pulse and detection of back-scattered waves. The paper presents derivation of the closed-form solution of the CRT inversion algorithms by two different approaches: the range-migration algorithm (RMA) and the deconvolution algorithm (DA). Experimentally determined data of ultrasound phantom obtained using a 32-element 5 MHz linear transducer array with 0.48 mm element pitch and 0.36 mm element width and 5 mm height, excited by a 2 sine cycles burst pulse are used for comparison of images reconstructed by the RMA, DA, and conventional synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). It is demonstrated that both the RMA and SAFT allow better lateral resolution and visualization depth to be achieved as compared to the DA approach. Comparison of the results obtained by the RMA method and the SAFT indicates slight improvement of the lateral resolution for the SAFT of approximately 1.5 and 1.6% at the depth of 12 and 32 mm, respectively. Concurrently, however, the visualization depth increase for the RMA is shown in comparison with the SAFT. Specifically, the scattered echo amplitude increase by the factor of 1.36 and 1.12 at the depth of 22 and 32 mm is demonstrated. It is also shown that the RMA runs about 30% faster than the SAFT and about 12% faster than the DA method
Synthetic aperture (SA) technique is a novel approach to present day commercial systems and has previously not been used in medical ultrasound imaging. The basic idea of SA is to combine information acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions and to reconstruct the full image from these data. The paper presents the multi-element STA (MSTA) method for medical ultrasound imaging. The main difference with the STA approach is the use of a few elements in the transmit mode in contrast to a single element aperture. This allows increasing the system frame rate, decreasing the number of emissions, and provides the best compromise between the penetration depth and lateral resolution. Besides, a modified MSTA is proposed with a corresponding RF signal correction in the receive mode, which accounts for the element directivity property. In the experiments a 32-element linear transducer array with 0.48 mm inter-element spacing and a burst pulse of 100 ns duration were used. Two elements wide transmission aperture was used to generate an ultrasound wave covering the full image region. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of a tissue mimicking phantom obtained using the STA and MSTA methods is presented to demonstrate the benefits of the second one.
The paper presents the optimization problem for the multi-element synthetic transmit aperture method (MSTA) in ultrasound imaging applications. The optimal choice of the transmit aperture size is made as a trade-off between the lateral resolution, penetration depth and the frame rate. Results of the analysis obtained by a developed optimization algorithm are presented. The maximum penetration depth and lateral resolution at given depths are chosen as optimization criteria. The results of numerical experiments carried out in MATLAB® using synthetic aperture data of point reflectors obtained by the FIELD II simulation program are presented. The visualization of experimental synthetic aperture data of a tissue mimicking phantom and in vitro measurements of the beef liver performed using the SonixTOUCH Research system are also shown.
The paper presents the theoretical and experimental study of synthetic transmit aperture (STA) method combined with Golay coded transmission for medical ultrasound imaging applications. The transmission of long waveforms characterized by a particular autocorrelation function allows to increase the total energy of the transmitted signal without increasing the peak pressure. It can also improve signal-to-noise ratio and increase the visualization depth maintaining the ultrasound image resolution. In the work the 128-element linear transducer array with 0.3 mm pitch excited by the 8 and 16-bits Golay coded sequences as well as a one cycle at nominal frequencies 4 MHz were used. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of the tissue mimicking phantoms is presented to demonstrate the benefits of coded transmission. The image reconstruction was performed using synthetic STA algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function.