Early embryonic death (EED) is one of the causes of infertility in the mare. We compared endometrial environment in 9 mares with EED and 13 mares in diestrus phase. Cotton swab (CS), cytobrush (CB) and uterine biopsy (B) samples were obtained for the cytological, bacteriological and histopathological examinations. In the first step we compared CS and CB methods to biopsy as a reference method, as B revealed the highest number of positive results in cytological and bacteriological examinations in both groups. In turn, we also compared cytological, bacteri- ological and histopathological findings between EED and control animals using the B sampling. Although the differences between these groups were not statistically significant (p≥0.05), there was a tendency to a higher prevalence of subclinical endometritis in the control group, than in the EED group (62% vs 22%). In general, positive bacteriological results were similar in both groups (62% vs 55%), whereas positive cytological results were higher in the control group (62% vs 22%; p≥0.05). In histopathological examination in EED mares endometrial degeneration was better expressed (all mares were with grades IIB and III on the Kenney-Doig scale); however, the differences between both groups were not statistically significant (p≥0.05). We could not confirm a clear difference in uterine environment between the two groups. Moreover, the uterine biopsy seemed to be the most reasonable sampling method for diagnosis of endometrial state.
A clinical trial was performed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of osaterone acetate (OSA) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs. Osaterone acetate (Ypozane, Virbac) was administered orally at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg body weight once a day for seven days to 23 dogs with BPH. During the 28-day trial, the dogs were monitored five times for their clinical signs and prostate volume. The OSA treatment promoted rapid reduction of clinical scores to 73.2% on day 7 and to 5.9% on day 28 (p<0.05). Osaterone acetate induced the complete clinical remission in approximately 83.0% of the dogs on day 28. The prostate volume regressed to 64.3% of the pretreatment volume after two weeks of the treatment (p<0.05) and to 54.7% at the end of the trial (p<0.05). In conclusion, OSA quickly reduced clinical signs and volume of the prostate glands in dogs with BPH.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a second prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) treatment during Ovsynch on luteal regression and fertility in dairy cows, compared with standard Ovsynch. The study was conducted on 111 Holstein Friesian multiparous cows on commercial dairy farm. The cows in the experimental group (n=48) received two treatments of PGF2α 24 hours apart during Ovsynch. The cows in the control group (n=63) were synchronized with standard Ovsynch. To assess the progesterone (P4) concentration blood samples were collected at the day of PGF2α treatment and at the 2nd GnRH treatment. Pregnancy was evaluated by ultrasound examination 37-40 days after timed artificial insemination (TAI) by ultrasound. Cows diagnosed pregnant were re-examined between days 70-80 after TAI. The percentage of cows with complete corpus luteum (CL) regression (P4<0.5 ng/ml at the time of the 2nd GnRH treatment) was 89.6 % after two PGF2α treatments and 88.9 % after one PGF2α treatment. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in the pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) between the experimental and control group (P/AI). However, the pregnancy loss rate was lower in cows receiving two PGF2α treatments than in the control animals (0.0 % vs. 6.4 %; p<0.05). In conclusion, the second PGF2α treatment during Ovsynch protocol had no significant effect on CL regression and P/AI in dairy cows. The pregnancy losses until days 75-80 after TAI were significantly lower after two PGF2α treatments than after one PGF2α treatment.
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of cystic ovarian follicles (COFs) occurring after puerperium on fertility and the effect of their treatment with progesterone releasing device on reproductive performance in dairy cows. The study was carried out in 3 herds of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows under herd health program. COFs were diagnosed by ultrasound above 60 days p.p. They were defined as follicular structures with a diameter > 2.5 cm in the absence of a corpus luteum at two repeated examinations at the 14-days interval. On the day of COF diagnosis blood samples were collected to measure progesterone (P4) concentration. On the basis of the wall thickness measurement and progesterone concentration at the first examination, the COFs were differentiated into follicular and luteal cysts. The experimental group consisted of 23 animals with COF. The cows were treated with PRID Delta (Ceva Animal Health, Poland), containing 1.55 g of progesterone, for 7 days. The cows without oestrus signs within 14 days after treatment were re-examinated. If COF persisted, the cows were treated again with PRID Delta. The treatment was repeated maximum three times. Fifteen cows with ovarian cysts were left untreated and served as a control group. The cows with COF were matched to healthy cows without COF. The cows with COF had worse fertility performances compared to cows without COF. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in conception rates, number of services per conception and days open between these groups. Compared with non-treated cows with COF, in cows with COF treated with PRID Delta conceptions rates and number of services per conception were similar, but the days open were significantly (p<0.05) lower in cows treated than in non-treated (183.3 days vs. 277.6 days). There were no differences in reproductive performances between the follicular and luteal cysts in treated and non-treated cows. In conclusion, the results of our study confirm the negative impact of COF after puerperium on fertility in dairy cows. Furthermore the results indicate the usefulness of PRID Delta for the treatment of COF occurring after the puerperium regardless of cysts type.