Th is report provides a concise overview of the rendering and utilization of three-dimensional models in the fi eld of anatomy. Anatomical three-dimensional virtual models are widely used for educational purposes, preoperative planning, and surgical simulations because they simply allow for interactive three-dimensional navigation across the human organs or entire body. Virtual threedimensional models have been recently fabricated as accurate replicas of the anatomical structures thanks to advances in rapid prototyping technology.
Fuzzy logic determination of the material hardening parameters based on the Heyer’s method was applied in this research. As the fuzzy input variables, the length of two measuring bases and the maximum force registered in the Heyer’s test were used. Firstly, the numerical experiment (the simulation of the fuzzification of the input data) with the assumed disturbance of input variables was performed. Next, on the basis of experimental investigations (eleven samples made from the same material), the membership functions associated with the input data were created. After that, the fuzzy analysis was examined. Fuzzy material hardening constants obtained by means of the α-level optimization and the extension principle methods were compared. Discrete values of the hardening data are found in the defuzzification process, by application of the mass center method.
The objective of the study was to create a printable 3D model of the sellar region of the sphenoid bone for demonstrating anatomical variant of the osseous bridging between anterior and posterior clinoid processes. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the middle cranial fossa along with 3D printed model, allow for accurate depicting position of the interclinoid bridge with reference to other basicranial structures.
A personal data referring to the scaphoid skull housed in the Department of Anatomy of the Jagiellonian University, Medical College was established thanks to reviewing 19th century literature performed by Dr. Sofi caru. We received information that the skull had belonged to an adult man who was a carpenter, born at Cracow. Th e original anthropometrical study of this skull was performed by prof. Kopernicki 19th century.