The paper analyses the distorted data of an electronic nose in recognizing the gasoline bio-based additives. Different tools of data mining, such as the methods of data clustering, principal component analysis, wavelet transformation, support vector machine and random forest of decision trees are applied. A special stress is put on the robustness of signal processing systems to the noise distorting the registered sensor signals. A special denoising procedure based on application of discrete wavelet transformation has been proposed. This procedure enables to reduce the error rate of recognition in a significant way. The numerical results of experiments devoted to the recognition of different blends of gasoline have shown the superiority of support vector machine in a noisy environment of measurement.
Comparison of Evolutionary Algorithm and Heuristics for Flow Optimization in P2P Systems Nowadays, many Internet users make use of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems to download electronic content including music, movies, software, etc. Growing popularity in P2P based protocol implementations for file sharing purposes caused that the P2P traffic exceeds Web traffic and in accordance with to many statistics, P2P systems produce a more than 50% of the whole Internet traffic. Therefore, P2P systems provide remarkable income for Internet Service Providers (ISP). However, at the same time P2P systems generates many problems related to traffic engineering, optimization, network congestion. In this paper we focus on the problem of flow optimization in P2P file sharing systems. Corresponding to BitTorrent-based systems behaviour, the optimization of P2P flows is very complex and in this work we consider different heuristic strategies for content distribution and moreover we propose a new evolutionary algorithm (EA) for this problem. We compare results of the algorithms against optimal results yielded by CPLEX solver for networks including 10 peers and relation to random algorithm for 100-node systems. According to numerical experiments, the EA provides solutions close to optimal for small instances and all of the heuristics exhibit a superior performance over random search.
Measurements of pollutants scavenged from air masses over southern Svalbard in summer precipitation are presented. Rainfall was sampled in July and August 2002 at Calypsobyen, Bellsund. Specific conductivity (SpC) and pH were measured and ion concentrations were determined by ion chromatography. Ions of marine origin were subtracted, assuming that all chlorides were of marine origin. The FLEXTRA trajectory model was applied to discover the sources of air masses arriving at Svalbard and track the paths of pollutant transport. Average (v/w) rainfall pH was 4.94, mean SpC amounted to 34.8 µS cm-1. Total dissolved solids concentration (TDS) ranged from 12.6 to 67 mg L-1, with ions of marine origin (Cl-, Na+, Mg2+) prevailing. Rains with the highest percentage of marine salts occurred with winds from the East at above average velocities. Non-sea salt (nss) sulphate concentrations ranged from 0.5 µeq L-1 to 23 µeq L-1, (v/w) average was 17 µeq L-1. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0 to 24 µeq L-1. The highest concentrations of nss-SO42- and NO3- were measured on 25 August, when the highest rainfall occurred (27 mm) and pH was the lowest (4.65). Rainfall at Calypsobyen deposited 194 kg km-2 of acidifying anions and 263 kg km-2 of base cations over the recording period. The polluted air masses were mostly from northern and central Europe. Rainfalls scavenging air masses formed over Greenland and Norwegian Seas displayed similar concentrations, being probably polluted by SOx and NOx from ship emissions.
Spitsbergen glaciers react rapidly to changes in the polar environment, which is expressed in differences in extent of their fronts and surface geometry. The Scott Glacier, which is situated in the NW part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land, is an example of the glacier that has undergone almost continuous recession since the Little Ice Age, interrupted by surges. The variations in recession are characterised based on multiannual data with particularly consideration of the period 1990–2005 and the season 2005/2006. Acceleration of front recession and lowering the surface was found only within the tongue up to a height of about 220 m a.s.l. Whereas, in the area situated in the zone of rock steps and above in the ablation zone, the change of glacier surface ablation (Dh) has been recorded compared to the mean annual recession for the period 1990–2005. Moreover, for the upper firn field, the positive surface ablation (DhS7 = +0.19 m) was observed. As the result of progressive reduction of the Scott Glacier mass, with the participation of other factors (bedrock relief among others), new surfaces of roche moutonnée are uncovering particularly in the tongue zone.