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Abstract

A significant threat to critical infrastructure of computer systems has a destructive impact caused by infrasound waves. It is shown that the known infrasound generations are based on using the following devices: a Helmholtz Resonator, Generation by using a Pulsating Sphere such as Monopolies, Rotor-type Radiator, Resonating Cylinder, VLF Speaker, Method of Paired Ultrasound Radiator, and airscrew. Research of these devices was made in this paper by revealing their characteristics, main advantages and disadvantages. A directional pattern of infrasound radiation and a graph of dependence of infrasound radiation from the consumed power was constructed. Also, during the analysis of these devices, there was proven a set of basic parameters, the values of which make it possible to characterize their structural and operational characteristics. Then approximate values of the proposed parameters of each those considered devices, were calculated. A new method was developed for evaluating the effectiveness of infrasound generation devices based on the definition of the integral efficiency index, which is calculated using the designed parameters. An example of practical application of the derived method, was shown. The use of the method makes it possible, taking into account the conditions and requirements of the infrasound generation devices construction, to choose from them the most efficient one.
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Abstract

The paper deals with the problem of the determination of the effects of temperature on the efficiency of the nitrification process of industrial wastewater, as well as its toxicity to the test organisms. The study on nitrification efficiency was performed using wastewater from one of Polish chemical factories. The chemical factory produces nitrogen fertilizers and various chemicals. The investigated wastewater was taken from the influent to the industrial mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The WWTP guaranteed high removal efficiency of organic compounds defined as chemical oxygen demand (COD) but periodical failure of nitrification performance was noted in last years of the WWTP operation. The research aim was to establish the cause of recurring failures of nitrification process in the above mentioned WWTP. The tested wastewater was not acutely toxic to activated sludge microorganisms. However, the wastewater was genotoxic to activated sludge microorganisms and the genotoxicity was greater in winter than in spring time. Analysis of almost 3 years’ period of the WWTP operation data and laboratory batch tests showed that activated sludge from the WWTP under study is very sensitive to temperature changes and the nitrification efficiency collapses rapidly under 16°C. Additionally, it was calculated that in order to provide the stable nitrification, in winter period the sludge age (SRT) in the WWTP should be higher than 35 days.
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