The present work aims at studying the effects of orientation, size, position, and the combination of multiple internal diathermal obstructions in a fluid-saturated square porous enclosure, generally encountered in thermal insulations. The overall objective is to suppress the natural convection fluid flow and heat transfer across a differentially heated porous enclosure. To serve this purpose, multiple diathermal obstructions are employed to mechanically protrude into a porous medium. It is sought to estimate the effect of various types of orientation, clustering and alternate positioning of obstructions by considering number of obstructions (Np), length of obstructions (λ), modified Rayleigh number (Ra*) on local and average Nusselt number (Nu). The Darcy model for porous media is solved using Finite difference method along with Successive Accelerated Replacement scheme. One of the findings is that the value of the Nusselt number decreases by increasing both, the number of obstructions as well as the length of obstructions irrespective of its orientation and positioning. The reduction in Nusselt number is significant with obstructions attached on lower half of the hot wall and/or on upper half of cold wall. In addition, the overall reduction in Nusselt number is slightly greater with obstructions attached explicitly to the cold wall.
Background: a humidity sensor is used to sense and measure the relative humidity of air. A new composite system has been fabricated using environmental pollutants such as carbon black and low-cost zinc oxide, and it acts as a humidity sensor. Residual life of the sensor is calculated and an expert system is modelled. For properties and nature confirmation, characterization is performed, and a sensing material is fabricated. Methodology: characterization is performed on the fabricated material. Complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are all used to confirm the surface roughness, its composite nature as well as the morphology of the composite. The residual lifetime of the fabricated humidity sensor is calculated by means of accelerated life testing. An intelligent model is designed using artificial intelligence techniques, including the artificial neural network (ANN), fuzzy inference system (FIS) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Results: maximum conductivity obtained is 6.4×10⁻³ S/cm when zinc oxide is doped with 80% of carbon black. Conclusion: the solid composite obtained possesses good humidity-sensing capability in the range of 30–95%. ANFIS exhibits the maximum prediction accuracy, with an error rate of just 1.1%.
In this paper, a novel double-layer multiband circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna is proposed. The design employs the concept of slotted patch fed with proximity coupled feed having defected ground plane (DGS). The proposed antenna achieves multiple operating frequency bands including FB1 (11.15 GHz), FB2 (4.17 GHz), FB3 (4.87 GHz) and FB4 (1.98 GHz). The proposed antenna has obtained bandwidth of 12.98%, 4.7%, 4.69% and 5.39% at FB1, FB2, FB3 and FB4 bands, respectively. The proposed antenna also exhibits circular polarization in the frequency band FB4. The 3dB ARBW of the antenna is 9.23% at 11.2 GHz. Finally, a metallic cavity is used with the antenna to achieve a unidirectional radiation pattern. The designed antenna radiation characteristics are verified with the experimental results.
Heat exchangers are widely employed in numerous industrial applications to serve the heat recovery and cooling purpose. This work reports a performance analysis of a tube in tube heat exchanger for different flow configuration under variable operating conditions. The experimental investigation was performed on a U-shaped double pipe heat exchanger set up whereas Commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code FLUENT along with k-ε turbulence modeling scheme was implemented for the simulation study. The flow solution was achieved by implementing k-ε turbulence modeling scheme and the simulation findings were compared with the experimental results. The experimental findings were in good agreement with the simulation results. The counter-flow configuration was found to be 29.4% more effective than the co-current one at low fluid flow rate. Direct relationship between heat transfer rate and flow rate is observed while effectiveness and LMTD showed inverse relationship with it. The significance of inlet temperature of hot and cold stream has been evaluated, they play crucial role in heat exchange process.
This experimental study reveals the effects of CaF2, FeMn and NiO additions to the base fluxes on tensile strength and percentage elongation of the weld metal. The aim of this study is to develop suitable flux for mild steel for high tensile strength, impact strength and ductility. Bead on plate welds were made using submerged arc welding process. Mathematical model for percentage elongation and UTS of mild steel welds were made. The elements transfer to the welds have been correlated with the above mechanical performance characteristics. The effect of oxygen content on weld elongation and UTS also has been deduced. This study shows that CaF2 and NiO are the significant factors for tensile strength while FeMn is not significant for tensile strength. However, for elongation besides CaF2, the interaction of CaF2 and FeMn was also found significant. The effects of basicity index of the flux and carbon equivalent of the welds on tensile strength and percentage elongation of the welds have also been evaluated.
This paper proposes an active noise control (ANC) application to attenuate siren noise for the patient lying inside ambulance with no sound proofing. From the point of cost effectiveness, a local ANC system based on feedforward scheme is considered. Further, to handle the limitation of limited Zone of Silence (ZoS), the ANC based on virtual sensing is explored. The simulations are done in MATLAB for the recorded ambulance siren noise signal. The results indicate that ANC can be an effective solution for creating a silent environment for the patient.