Bearings of three-bearing shafts are usually treated as ideally-rigid articulated supports. In literature, the reactions of supports and bending moments of multibearing shafts are calculated taking into consideration only shaft elasticity. In fact, also deformation is present in these bearings, and it changes the shaft bending line. The deformation thus influences distribution of bending moment and reaction of supports. It is the most important difference when comparing two-bearing with three-bearing shafts. Moreover, in most types of bearings, a reactive bending moment is the response of bearing to unparallel position of inner bearing rings in relation to outer rings, that is to the tilt angle. As a result, real loads of rolling elements differ from theoretical ones. The aim of the paper is to develop a method of calculating generalized loads in rolling bearings of a three-bearing shaft taking into consideration shaft deformation, deformations in bearings and reactive moments of bearings caused by tilt angle.
Optimum values of preload can be achieved in well-tried constructions and then applied in similar structures. For new structures, it is recommended to calculate the preload force and to test the correctness of calculation by means of experiments. In practice it may be necessary to introduce corrections, because not all real work parameters can be precisely known. Credibility of calculations depends, first of all, on the consistence between the assumptions concerning temperature conditions during work and elastic deformations of cooperating elements – first of all of a holder – and the real work conditions. The aim of the study is to determine how preload influences the work of a system of angular ball bearings, in relation to durability of bearing, moment of friction and rigidity of the bearing.