The interdisciplinary report is an effect of the work of a team of experts appointed by Division I for Humanities and Social Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN). The team consisted of representatives of academic committees of the division. Its task was to formulate answers to 20 questions most frequently asked in public discourse regarding costs and benefits of the European integration, relations between Poland and the EU authorities, threats to the integration, the future of the EU and the place of Poland in the Community. The authors express concern about the potential results of the negative attitude of the current Polish government towards the actions of the institutions of the EU, the growing criticism towards the European integration and the threat of marginalisation of Poland within the EU or even the possibility of Poland’s leaving the EU (Polexit). They also indicate the possible economic, political and civilizational outcomes of the actions of the Polish authorities which weaken Poland’s ties to the EU. The report urges the academic community to increase their research activity and involvement in the public debate regarding these vital issues.