Sound diffusers, in particular those based on changes in the phase of the reflected wave (Schroeder diffusers), have recently gained greatly in popularity in acoustics as an effective means to eliminate defects and improve the acoustic performance of interiors. This paper draws attention to a possibility of shaping acoustic parameters of sound diffusers and fundamental errors made in applying diffusers. Also, an often neglected issue of sound absorption by diffusers has been tackled. The presented results of laboratory measurements indicate a great significance of the diffusers' rigidity and geometry on their absorption coefficient at low frequencies. The effect of arrangement of elements on the diffusion coefficient was analysed for two types of elements based on the prime number N = 7.
This paper presents the results of measurements of the sound absorption coefficient of auditorium seats carried out in the laboratory using two methods. In the first one, small blocks of seats in various arrangements were studied in a reverberation chamber to determine the absorption coefficient of an auditorium of infinite dimensions. The results were compared to the values of the absorption coefficient measured using the second method, which involved samples enclosed within a frame screening the side surfaces of other auditorium blocks. The results of both methods allowed for the assessment of the sound absorption coefficient of an auditorium of any dimensions while taking into account the sound absorption by the side surfaces. The method developed by the authors will simplify the currently known measurement procedures.
Fabric covering is often used by designers, as it can easily mask acoustic structures that do not match an interior. However, in the case of sound diffusers based on change in the phase of the reflected wave, the use of fabric covering is not without its effect on acoustics. It reduces the effectiveness of these structures and raises acoustic absorption. In the paper, the authors analyzed the acoustical properties of a selected fabric used to cover sound diffusers. Sound absorption and scattering coefficients for a system composed of sound diffusers and a fabric situated at different distances d were measured. The results were compared to the sound absorption predicted on the basis of Kuttruff’s and Mechel’s theoretical models. Analysis of the results indicates that the fabric has a significant influence on the system’s acoustic parameters. It is also observed, that fabric applied directly on a phase grating diffuser, produces higher absorption than when it is at some distance from it.
The paper focuses on the problem of test signal selection in determining the sound scattering coefficient in accordance with ISO 17497-1. Research shows that the use of MLS signal is preferred in this procedure. The sine sweep signal, despite its advantages, presents certain limitations if the sample is moving during measurement. An attempt has been made to develop a method that allows for minimization of error, demonstrating the dependence of the obtained values of the sound scattering coefficient on the rotational speed of the turntable and type of test signal. Conditions for the application of the sine sweep signals in continuous and discrete measurements were defined.
The paper presents the verification of a solution to the narrow sound frequency range problem of flat reflective panels. The analytical, numerical and experimental studies concerned flat panels, panels with curved edges and also semicircular elements. There were compared the characteristics of sound reflected from the studied elements in order to verify which panel will provide effective sound reflection and also scattering in the required band of higher frequencies, i.e. above the upper limit frequency. Based on the conducted analyzes, it was found that among some presented solutions to narrow sound frequency range problem, the array composed of panels with curved edges is the most preferred one. Nevertheless, its reflection characteristic does not meet all of the requirements, therefore, it is necessary to search for another solution of canopy which is effective over a wide frequency range.
The paper presents the new solution to a road acoustic screen consisting of elements which are highly diffusing and simultaneously resistant to weathering, but also characterised by a sound absorption. There is described the comprehensive research of such the road acoustic screen with absorbing and diffusing surface. The study includes screen’s resistance to wind load and snow removal, impact tests and mea- surements of some acoustic parameters