The paper presents the method for multicriteria design of a synchronous generator voltage regulator. The results of the voltage regulator polyoptimisation are compromise sets for a classic controller of type PI and fuzzy logic controller of type Takagi-Sugeno-Kang. A genetic algorithm is used to solve the polyoptimisation problem.
Wood pellets are classified as a solid biomass type. They are one of the most popular bio-heating fuels used in Europe, especially in the small heating sector, where pellets are burned in low-power domestic boilers. The pellets and automatic pellet-fired heating devices gained popularity due to the increasing air pollution (smog) problem and the low emission limiting campaigns associated with it. Wood pellets are formed as a result of small forestry particles mechanical compression (mainly conifers originated) and they are listed among renewable energy sources. The purpose of the presented studies was to compare the quality of wood pellets used for pellet-fired boilers and to identify, qualitatively and quantitatively, impurities marked in the samples obtained from the domestic market. The application of petrographic analyses, applied so far in relation to fossil fuels, is a presented work innovation for wood pellets. The microscopic analyses were performed on both certified (ENplus/DINplus) and uncertified wood pellets available on the market. Unfortunately, the analysis revealed that the quality requirements were not met, because of the unacceptable contamination presence. The unacceptable organic inclusions in the analyzed samples are fossil coals and their derivatives, coke, and polymeric materials of natural origin. Unacceptable inorganic inclusions determined in the analyzed samples were: glass, slag, rust, pieces of metal, stone powder, plastic, and polymeric materials of inorganic origin.
Petrographic and physico-chemical analyses of ashes are carried out on a large scale and presented in numerous scientific papers. The mentioned ashes are obtained from filters and electrostatic precipitators mounted in large industrial installations. The large-scale analysis of the ashes obtained directly from grate furnaces or blast furnaces mounted in low-power boilers started with combating smog and low-stack emissions. The collection of ash samples from household furnaces usually involves the analysis of the combustion of waste in low-power boilers. This is justified in the case of old type boilers, which were designed to use virtually any fuel. Currently, new types of boilers, designed to burn dedicated fuels, are offered on the market. The aim is to use only renewable fuels (biomass) or fossil fuels with high quality parameters, which are more environment-friendly, e.g. eco-pea coal, lignite briquettes, or peat briquettes. The authors of the study focused on examining the ash obtained from boilers for burning wood pellets by performing microscopic analysis of residues after biomass combustion. The above mentioned analysis provides a comprehensive information on the efficiency of the combustion process, the content of contaminants remaining in the ash, and the suitability of ash for other applications. The entire process, from the moment of collecting the samples to the execution of the analysis takes up to 12 hours, which ensures a quick decision on furnace adjustment or fuel change. The ash components were determined based on the results obtained by the Fly-Ash Working Group of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP). The mentioned classification has been supplemented with new key elements occurring in ashes resulting from the combustion of wood pellets in household boilers. This allowed determining the percentage content of characteristic components in the tested material, which can be used as a specific benchmark when issuing opinions on the quality and efficiency of the boiler and the combusted pellets.
The aim of the study was veriﬁcation of the response of chamomile (Matricaria recutita (L.) Rauschert), peppermint (Mentha x piperita) lemon balm (Melissa ofﬁcinalis L.), and sage (Salvia ofﬁcinalis L.) on the elevated contents of inorganic As species in soils. The ability of herbs to accumulate arsenic was tested in pot experiment in which soils were contaminated by As(III) and As(V). The As(III), As(V), AB (arsenobetaine), MMA (monomethylarsonic acid) and DMA (dimethylarsinic acid) ions were successfully separated in the Hamilton PRP-X100 column with high performance-liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) techniques. The study examined total arsenic contents in soil and plants, as well as the mobility of the arsenic species from the soil into the studied plants. Peppermint demonstrated the highest arsenic concentration and phytoaccumulation among studied plants. The sequential chemical extraction showed that arsenic in the contaminated soil was mainly related to the oxide and organic-sulﬁde fractions. The results showed that the oxidized arsenic form had a greater ability to accumulate in herbs and was more readily absorbed from the substrate by plants. Research has shown that soil contaminated with As(III) or As(V) has different effects on the arsenic content in plants. The plant responses to strong environmental pollution varied and depended on their type and the arsenic species with which the soil was contaminated. In most cases it resulted in the appearance of the organic arsenic derivatives.
Wood pellets, commonly referred to as biomass fuel, are increasingly used in heating and district heating in the European Union countries, including Poland. Their use in class 5 and/or Ecodesign boilers enables an individual consumer to use energy from renewable sources, reduce the environmental burden by reducing the emission of harmful compounds, and provides a sense of comfort by automating the boiler system. The article presents the current situation in the global wood pellet market, describes the basic quality standards applicable to this fuel during production, and indicates the difficulties in the implementation of programs co-financing the replacement of obsolete coal-fired boilers with automatic class 5 biomass-fired boilers. The research presented in this article is focused on the presence of contaminants in the DIN Plus, EN Plus, and A1 pellets, as well as in non-certified pellets. The analysis has shown that the use of wood pellets containing prohibited substances negatively affects boiler operation and contributes to the formation of slag and the emission of harmful compounds, making the discussed fuel non-ecological.