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Abstract

The possibility or even necessity of revising definitions of some of the base units of the present SI has been discussed over the past 15 years. The last General Conference of Weights and Measures (2007) recommended to redefine the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin, and the mole using fixed values of the fundamental constants by the time of the next General Conference in 2011. This paper is a review of proposals of new definitions of units of mentioned quantities and arguments voting for particular variants of definitions. Most relevant papers for this review have been published by Metrologia, the international journal appointed at the BIPM, and many other useful pieces of information are available on www pages of the BIPM. The author notes that not only new definitions have been discussed but as well as the set of the base units of the SI. It means a replacement of the ampere by the volt or the kelvin by the joule. Decisions concerning new definitions are not made and the discussions are still open.
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Abstract

In this paper we discuss some physical limits for scaling of transistors and conducting paths inside of semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs). Since 40 years only a semiconductor technology, mostly the CMOS and the TTL technologies, are used for fabrication of integrated circuits on an industrial scale. Miniaturization of electronic devices in integrated circuits has technological limits and physical limits as well. In 2010 best parameters of commercial ICs shown the Intel Core i5-670 processor manufactured in the technology of 32 nm. Its clock frequency in turbo mode is 3.73 GHz. A forecast of the development of the semiconductor industry (ITRS 2011) predicts that sizes of electronic devices in ICs circuits will be smaller than 10 nm in the next 10 years. At least 5 physical effects should be taken into account if we discuss limits of scaling of integrated circuits.
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