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Abstract

The primary aim of this paper was to assess the development of prosumer energy sector in Poland. In the first point, the basic notions connected with prosumer energy (micro-installation, prosumer) were discussed on the basis of Law of Renewable Energy Sources of February 20, 2015 (Journal of Laws, item 478, as amended) and the main aspects of the European Union energy policy where presented in the context of the development of the prosumer energy sector. In this part of the study, numerous benefits for the Polish economy and consumers of electrical energy, connected with the expansion of prosumer energy sector, were presented. On the other hand, many obstacles which stall this sector in Poland were noticed. In the second point the most important regulations from the Law of Renewable Energy Sources of February 20, 2015 were analyzed (In the second point the most important regulations from the Law of Renewable Energy Sources of February 20, 2015 (hereinafter: the RES act) were analyzed). On the basis of this legal act, the so called “rebate system”, which is currently used in Poland to support prosumers of electrical energy, was described. Moreover, many legal and administrative simplifications implemented by the RES act were indicated. The analytical approach to the RES Act in this study resulted in the detection of many regulations in this legal act which may have an adverse impact on the development of the prosumer energy sector in Poland. In the third point, programs co-financed by the Polish government or the European Union, which financially support the purchase and installation of energy technologies using RES, were described. Statistical data connected with the prosumer energy sector in Poland was presented in the fourth point of this paper. On the basis thereof, the authors attempted to find the correlation between the number of prosumers and the share of the amount of electrical energy from renewable energy sources in gross electrical energy consumption. In the fifth point issues connected with energy technologies used in the Polish prosumer energy sector were discussed. Moreover, this point focuses on the great popularity of photovoltaic modules among Polish prosumers and results in the reluctance of Polish prosumers to install wind microturbines and small hydroelectric power plants.
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Abstract

According to The European Commission’s regulation numbers 842/2006 and 517/2014, refrigerants whose Global Warming Potential ratio is more than 150, have been prohibited in mobile air conditioning (MAC) since January 2017. Therefore, the commonly used R-134 gas has been banned. The search for a new refrigerant, which grants all the required criteria, has begun. In accordance with new European standards, the gas should have environmentally friendly properties and should not be noxious to human life while operating. In this paper, two alternative substances, which can substitute the banned R134a, have been compared. This is synthetic R1234yf, which belongs to the HFO group, and carbon dioxide, which exists in the natural environment. The chemical build, physical and thermodynamic properties have been described. Scientific articles, which present and compare the technical results of testing both refrigerants, have been discussed. Comparison results, tools used and research methodology have been described in these articles. Alternative gases have been analyzed for their environmental impact and have been checked on the toxic, flammable, impact on ozone depletion and global warming. The threats to human life due to the use of the new refrigerants have been reviewed. The thesis also comprises an economical comparison between the two gases. A short review and conclusions have been presented at the end of the article.
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