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Abstract

In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as contractions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the ice slurry flow in which the flow behaviour depends mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the loss coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the sudden pipe contraction. The mass fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common contractions of copper pipes: 28/22 mm, 28/18 mm, 28/15 mm, 22/18 mm, 22/15 mm and 18/15 mm. The recommended (with respect to minimal flow resistance) range of the Reynolds number (Re about 3000-4000) for the ice slurry flow through sudden contractions was presented in this paper.
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Abstract

The paper stresses the issue of strong temperature influence on the gain of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM). High sensitivity of the detector to light (single photons) requires stable parameters during measurement, including gain. The paper presents a method of compensating the change of gain caused by temperature variations, by adjusting a suitable voltage bias provided by a precise power module. The methodology of the research takes in account applications with a large number of SiPMs (20 thousand), explains the challenges and presents the results of the gain stabilization algorithm.
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Abstract

According to The European Commission’s regulation numbers 842/2006 and 517/2014, refrigerants whose Global Warming Potential ratio is more than 150, have been prohibited in mobile air conditioning (MAC) since January 2017. Therefore, the commonly used R-134 gas has been banned. The search for a new refrigerant, which grants all the required criteria, has begun. In accordance with new European standards, the gas should have environmentally friendly properties and should not be noxious to human life while operating. In this paper, two alternative substances, which can substitute the banned R134a, have been compared. This is synthetic R1234yf, which belongs to the HFO group, and carbon dioxide, which exists in the natural environment. The chemical build, physical and thermodynamic properties have been described. Scientific articles, which present and compare the technical results of testing both refrigerants, have been discussed. Comparison results, tools used and research methodology have been described in these articles. Alternative gases have been analyzed for their environmental impact and have been checked on the toxic, flammable, impact on ozone depletion and global warming. The threats to human life due to the use of the new refrigerants have been reviewed. The thesis also comprises an economical comparison between the two gases. A short review and conclusions have been presented at the end of the article.
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