This article is a first endeavor into Polish defense policy matters by Polish Academy of Sciences’ Maritime Law. Among the signatories of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS 1982) there are 9 states bordering the Baltic Sea. Presently the friendly relations between those nations render baltic naval operations less important than far seas operations. This is also true with the Polish Navy.The issue of delimitation of maritime borders and establishment of contiguous zone is of utmost importance to Polish national security. Since 1972 there are ongoing negotiations between Republic of Poland and the Kingdom of Denmark regarding contiguous zones. It is the longest running unresolved border dispute in the Baltic Sea area. There is also a degree of controversy surrounding roadstead of Świnoujście and Szczecin ports located in Bay of Pomerania.The article formulates five conclusions of both general and detailed nature regarding the UNCLOS significance for Poland’s national security.
The author analyses legal issues of naval presence in the world ocean in the context of United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982) in terms of striking balance between doctrines of freedom of the sea and restricted access. Military operations at sea remain to be prominent. UNCLOS does provide for naval presence in the world ocean as it isessential not only for defense and protection of interests of coastal nations, but also to perform their treaty obligations. The burden to enforce law and order at sea rests on large naval fleets and it remains to be so in foreseeable future.
The Northern Sea Route is the shortest shipping lane connecting European part of Russia with the Far East and Syberia. The search for a route to China and India, undertaken by the English, Dutch and Russians, went on from mid 16th century until the end of 19th century. Its importance in the present day is exemplified by the traffic: 2007 alone saw 10 million tons of goods shipped along the Route. The Northern Sea Route is the apple of Russia’s eye. It plays a major part in the Transport Strategy of the Russian Federation until 2030, Russia also produced Concept of the Northern Sea Route Development until 2015 and a draft newlaw specifically addressing shipping along it. A crucial factor in economic feasibility of the route is the state of relations between members of the Arctic Council (the United States, Canada, Russia, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Iceland and Denmark), the observer states (Germany, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Spain and Poland) and the states that requested observer status (China, Japan, South Korea).
Although the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982) aims to regulate maritime safety in general, it omits terrorism at sea, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, illegal immigration, intelligence gathering and vessel traffic monitoring. The Convention excludes intelligence exchange on illegal activities at sea such as piracy, terrorism, human and narcotics trafficking, illegal fishing and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. UNCLOS does however operate as a framework convention since it provides infrastructure upon which UN agencies may take specific measures to address particular problems. For instance, UNCLOS serves as foundation for 80 legal documents in the fields of environmental protection and safety management. As maritime safety issues are of common interest, multinational cooperation is inevitable. Common good, the author argues, should take precedence over particular interests of nations.
The San Remo Manual is not a legal document. It was prepared by a group of experts in the area of naval conflict who took part in a series of round-table meetings between 1988 and 1994. The San Remo Manual is the modern equivalent of the Oxford Manual of the Laws of Naval War (1913) which regulated the relations between hostile forces. The San Remo Manual takes account of international practice, technological development, the content of the UN Charter, the Convention on the Law of the sea (1982), law relating to air traffic, and environmental law. The author of the article discusses the content of the Convention on the law of the Sea from 1982 in relation to the formulations in the San Remo Manual. Since 1995, the San Remo Manual has been obligatory material for training and instruction in the navies of NATO states. It has not yet been translated into Polish.
In an effort to fight terrorism, the author proposes applying the visit and search law not only on the high seas but also in territorial waters. This is a controversial viewpoint as current international law does not permit this law to be applied at all in case of terrorist threats. Additionally, territorial waters come under the exclusive jurisdiction of coastal countries. The full implementation into practice of a common, internationally accepted definition of terrorism should not be anticipated in the nearest future. The author of the article discusses the Rome Convention of 1988 on counteracting illegal acts that threaten the safety of ocean-going vessels, which was laid out following the attack staged by Palestinian terrorists on the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro in October 1985.
International armed conflicts in the twenty-first century will not be limited only to terrestrial territories of the opposing forces. Seas will not only be used for long term dislocation and concentration of forces, but will again become a theater o f war operations. Future armed conflicts will have a significant impact on international shipping activities since 90% of world trade is conducted via maritime shipping. Thus, it can be concluded that all the countries of the world are deeply dependent on undisturbed and free shipping trade. In this article, the author focuses on the issue of protecting neutral shipping. Naval war law and maritime neutrality are issues described by recognized legal frameworks that apply to international conflicts at sea. They do, however, have a number of deficiencies, which renders difficult the effective protection of neutral shipping from the negative impacts of war. One of the problems is the scope of the application of the maritime neutrality law. Another problem is the lack of the obligation of a neutral country to execute the necessary monitoring with the aim of preventing its citizens from cooperating with one or all of the parties to the conflict. Additionally, the warring parties will rarely be able to identify the real character of a cargo ship. The will in the international community to codify naval war law and maritime neutrality will be lacking in the near future.
The Arctic takes in part of Russia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Alaska (USA), Greenland (an autonomous Danish territory), Iceland and the Arctic Ocean, which is covered with ice and constitutes the center of the Arctic. There have been disputes between Denmark, Canada, Norway, Russia, and the USA concerning the borders o f the continental shelf of the Arctic Ocean. The author describes the achievements of the Russian expedition, “Arctic 2007, ” and the way in which Russia uses the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea. The essay also describes how the convention regulates the problem of the border of the continental shelf. He considers that in the future it may come to the partitioning of the Arctic Ocean’s continental shelf, along with the simultaneous fixing of “concessions” allowing the use of shipping lanes in the Arctic by the international community.
The authors attempted to present the state of disputes regarding the delimitation of marine areas based on a discussion of the practices of countries in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan region. The authors describe the disputes regarding the islands of Senaku (Diaoyu) between both China and Taiwan and Japan and those over the Dokdo (Takeshima) archipelago between the Republic of Korea and Japan. There are many similarities between these two marine territorial disputes. The core of the disputes is land that is devoid of significant economic importance. Due to this, these areas were not previously of interest to coastal countries. They came to the forefront when their location facilitated determining exclusive economic zones. This intensified when evidence of crude oil and natural gas resources was detected in these areas. Tensions eased when geological reports revealed that initial estimates were overly optimistic. The fundamental cause of disputes over archipelagos is that they can be used to determine exclusive economic zones. The problem is compounded when the politicians of Eastern Asia incite historical remembrance. This is especially evident in the cases of Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and China, whose governments are, to some extent, hostages of ultra-nationalistic factions.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have existed for many years and had assimilated many interesting innovations. Advances in electronics, radio transceivers, processes of IC manufacturing and development of algorithms for operation of such networks now enable creating energy-efficient devices that provide practical levels of performance and a sufficient number of features. Environmental monitoring is one of the areas in which WSNs can be successfully used. At the same time this is a field where devices must either bring their own power reservoir, such as a battery, or scavenge energy locally from some natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of energy harvesting methods reduces complexity of WSN structures. This survey is based on practical examples from the real world and provides an overview of state-of-the-art methods and techniques that are used to create energyefficient WSNs with energy harvesting.
In this paper, some issues of building a reliable, distributed measurement system for monitoring of water quality in reservoir Lake Dobczyckie are presented. The system is based on a measurement station that has the shape of a floating buoy which is supposed to be at anchor on the reservoir. Wireless data transmission problems that were encountered during the development of the buoy, modeling a radio link, and measurements of actual signal strength on the reservoir are discussed. A mathematical approach to procedures of early situation assessment was conducted, and specialized procedures were designed for measurement stations of the system. It is also discussed how such computations can improve a qualitative assessment of system performance in terms of real-time messaging
The analysis of leaching behavior of harmful substances, such as arsenic, is one of the parameters of risk assessment resulting from the storage or economic use of coal waste. The leachability depends both on the environmental conditions of the storage area as well as on the properties of the waste material itself. There are a number of leaching tests that allow to model specific conditions or measure the specific properties of the leaching process. The conducted research aimed at comparing two methods with different application assumptions. The study of arsenic leaching from waste from the hard coal enrichment process was carried out in accordance with the Polish PN-EN 12457 standard and the US TCLP procedure. The leaching results obtained with both methods did not exceed the limit values of this parameter, defined in the Polish law. Both methods were also characterized by the good repeatability of the results. The use of an acetic acid solution (TCLP method) resulted in three times higher arsenic leaching from the examined waste compared to the use of deionized water as a leaching fluid (method PN-EN 12457). Therefore, the use of organic acid tests for mining waste intended for storage with municipal waste should be considered, as the results of the basic test based on clean water leaching may be inadequate to the actual leaching of arsenic under such environmental conditions.
Procesy spalania, a w szczególności spalanie węgla kamiennego i brunatnego, stanowią jedno z głównych antropogenicznych źródeł emisji pierwiastków ekotoksycznych do atmosfery. W związku z tym nie tylko emisja gazów cieplarnianych czy pyłów, ale także zanieczyszczenie atmosfery szkodliwymi pierwiastkami potocznie zwanymi „metalami ciężkimi” (takimi jak: rtęć, ołów czy kadm) jest obiektem zaostrzającej się polityki klimatycznej Unii Europejskiej. W artykule dokonano przeglądu i analizy zarówno dotychczas obowiązujących przepisów unijnych, jak i krajowych uregulowań prawnych związanych z emisją pierwiastków ekotoksycznych z procesów spalania paliw stałych. Problematyka ta stała się szczególnie ważna dla przemysłu elektroenergetycznego w kontekście przyjętych przez Komisję Europejską w kwietniu 2017 roku konkluzji BAT dla dużych obiektów energetycznego spalania (LCP). Ponadto zidentyfikowano oraz scharakteryzowano najważniejsze czynniki wpływające na wielkość emisji tych zanieczyszczeń do atmosfery. Na podstawie danych literaturowych oraz badań własnych przeprowadzono analizę zawartości wybranych pierwiastków ekotoksycznych w krajowych węglach. Na podstawie tej analizy podjęto próbę oceny ew. wpływu jakości polskich węgli na sytuację krajowego sektora energetycznego w świetle prowadzonej przez UE polityki środowiskowej. Uzyskane wyniki wskaźników emisji niektórych pierwiastków ekotoksycznych różnią się od wskaźników stosowanych przez KOBiZE do szacowania wielkości emisji. Rodzi to potrzebę ciągłego monitorowania zawartości pierwiastków ekotoksycznych w polskich węglach oraz okresową weryfikację wskaźników emisji tych pierwiastków. Oszacowana średnia wartość emisji rtęci z badanych węgli energetycznych wyniosła 7,8 μg/m3 (0°C; 101,325 kPa). W związku z tym spalanie badanych węgli energetycznych w istniejących instalacjach elektrowni o mocy powyżej 300 MWth może skutkować niespełnieniem wchodzących w życie norm emisji rtęci do atmosfery, a co za tym idzie koniecznością stosowania węgli poddanych wzbogacaniu. Obliczona średnia emisja Hg dla analizowanych w celach porównawczych węgli koksowych poddanych procesowi wzbogacania nie przekracza wartości dopuszczalnych w nowych regulacjach.
The article reports three experiments conducted to determine whether musicians possess better ability of recognising the sources of natural sounds than non-musicians. The study was inspired by reports which indicate that musical training develops not only musical hearing, but also enhances various non-musical auditory capabilities. Recognition and detection thresholds were measured for recordings of environmental sounds presented in quiet (Experiment 1) and in the background of a noise masker (Experiment 2). The listener’s ability of sound source recognition was inferred from the recognition-detection threshold gap (RDTG) defined as the difference in signal level between the thresholds of sound recognition and sound detection. Contrary to what was expected from reports of enhanced auditory abilities of musicians, the RDTGs were not smaller for musicians than for non-musicians. In Experiment 3, detection thresholds were measured with an adaptive procedure comprising three interleaved stimulus tracks with different sounds. It was found that the threshold elevation caused by stimulus interleaving was similar for musicians and non-musicians. The lack of superiority of musicians over non-musicians in the auditory tasks explored in this study is explained in terms of a listening strategy known as casual listening mode, which is a basis for auditory orientation in the environment.