This study characterizes the bronze jewellery recovered from the Lusatian culture urn-field in Mała Kępa (Chełmno land, Poland). Among many common ornaments (e.g. necklaces, rings, pins) the ones giving evidence of a steppe-styled inspiration (nail earrings) were also identified. With the dendritic microstructures revealed, the nail earrings prove the implementing of a lost-wax casting method, whereas some of the castings were further subjected to metalworking. The elemental composition indicates the application of two main types of bronze alloys: Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Pb. It has been established that the Lusatian metalworkers were familiar with re-melting the scrap bronze and made themselves capable of roasting the sulphide-rich ores. The collection from Mała Kępa has been described in terms of its structure and composition. The investigations were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X - ray analysis system (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). In order to fingerprint an alloy profile of the castings with a special emphasis on the nail earrings, the data-set (ED-XRF, EDS) was statistically evaluated using multidimensional analyses (FA, DA).
High prices of tin and its limited resources, as well as several valuable properties characterising Cu-Sn alloys, cause searching for materials of similar or better properties at lower production costs. The influence of various nickel additions to CuSn10 casting bronze and to CuSn8 bronze of a decreased tin content was tested. Investigations comprised melting processes and casting of tin bronzes containing various nickel additions (up to 5%). The applied variable conditions of solidification and cooling of castings (metal and ceramic moulds) allowed to assess these alloys sensitivity in forming macro and microstructures. In order to determine the direction of changes in the analysed Cu-Sn-Ni alloys, the metallographic and strength tests were performed. In addition, the solidification character was analysed on the basis of the thermal analysis tests. The obtained results indicated the influence of nickel in the solidification and cooling ways of the analysed alloys (significantly increased temperatures of the solidification beginning along with increased nickel fractions in Cu-Sn alloys) as well as in the microstructure pattern (clearly visible grain size changes). The hardness and tensile strength values were also changed. It was found, that decreasing of the tin content in the analysed bronzes to which approximately 3% of nickel was added, was possible, while maintaining the same ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness (HB) and improved plasticity (A5).
This preliminary study characterizes the bronze metalworking on a defensive settlement of the Lusatian culture in former Kamieniec (Chełmno land, Poland) as it is reflected through casting workshop recovered during recent excavations. Among ready products, the ones giving evidence of local metallurgy (e.g. casting moulds and main runners) were also identified. With the shrinkage cavities and dendritic microstructures revealed, the artifacts prove the implementing a casting method by the Lusatian culture metalworkers. The elemental composition indicates application of two main types of bronzes: Cu-Sn and Cu-Pb. Aside these main alloying additions, some natural impurities such as silver, arsenic, antimony and nickel were found which may be attributed to the origin of the ore and casting technology. The collection from Kamieniec was described in terms of its structure and composition. The investigations were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive Xray analysis system (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). In order to fingerprint either local or non-local profile of the alloys, the ED-XRF data-set was statistically evaluated using a factor analysis (FA).
Currently there is a constant development in the field of aluminium alloys engineering. This results from, i.a., better understanding of the mechanisms that direct strengthening of these alloys and the role of microalloying. Now it is microalloying in aluminum alloys that is receiving a lot of attention. It affects substantially the macro- and microstructure and kinetics of phase transformation influencing the properties during production and its exploitation. 7xxx series aluminum alloys, based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system, are high-strength alloys, moreover, the presence of Zr and Sr further increases their strength and improves resistance to cracking. This study aims to present the changes of the properties, depending on the alloy chemical composition and the macro- and microstructure. Therefore, the characteristics in the field of hardness, tensile strength, yield strength and elongation are shown on selected examples. Observations were made on ingot samples obtained by semi-continuous casting, in the homogenized state. Samples were prepared from aluminum alloys in accordance with PN-EN 573-3: 2013. The advantage of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys are undoubtedly good strength, Light-weight and resistance to corrosion. As widening of the already published studies it is sought to demonstrate the repeatability of the physical parameters in the whole volume of the sample.
Silicon bronzes are characterised by good mechanical properties and by high corrosion and mechanical wear resistance. The process of sleeve casting by means of the centrifugal casting with the horizontal axis of the mould rotation was analysed. The assessment of the influence of modification and centrifugal casting parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of alloys was carried out in the hereby work. Zirconium was applied as a modifier. Speed of rotation of the mould was the variable parameter of the centrifugal casting. The investigation results were summarised on the basis of the microstructure analysis and mechanical properties determination: UTS, proof stress, A10 and BHN. The experiment aimed at finding the information in which way the modification together with changing the pouring parameters influence the mechanical properties of the CuSi3Zn3FeMn alloy.
Cast axes are one of the most numerous categories of bronze products from earlier phases of the Bronze Age found in Poland. They had multiple applications since they were not only used objects such as tools or weapons but also played the prestigious and cult roles. Investigations of the selected axes from the bronze products treasure of the Bronze Age, found in the territory of Poland, are presented in the hereby paper. The holder of these findings is the State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw. Metallurgical investigations of axes with bushing were performed in respect of the casting technology and quality of obtained castings. Macroscopic observations allowed to document the remains of the gating system and to assess the range and kind of casting defects. Light microscopy revealed the microstructure character of these relicts. The chemical composition was determined by means of the X-ray fluorescence method with energy dispersion (ED-XRF) and by the scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersion analysis in micro-areas (SEM-EDS). The shape and dimensions of cores, reproducing inner parts of axes were identified on the basis of the X-ray tomography images. Studies reconstructed production technology of the mould with gating system, determined chemical composition of the applied alloys and casting structures as well as revealed the casting defects being the result of construction and usage of moulds and cores.