In the text is analyzed the issue of the parametric evaluation of scientific journals. The author makes thesis (and justifies it), that the nature and methodological bases of this process will determine the quality of effects of works on the scientific journals evaluation and it’s further status. Whereas this evaluation has far-reaching consequences for the development of the science.
Abstract Reproductive processes including male and female lines, embryo and endosperm development were studied in Cardaminopsis arenosa (syn. Arabidopsis arenosa) growing on two metalliferous sites (Bukowno and Bolesław, S. Poland), rich in Zn, Pb, Cd and other metals. Disturbances of developmental processes and necroses observed in anthers and ovules influenced plant fertility and seed set of plants from both metal-polluted sites. In anthers, disturbances and necrosis during male meiosis and pollen development occurred at low frequency (4-5%). Pollen grain viability was very high, reaching over 90%. In ovules the frequency of abnormal meiosis, female gametophyte developmental disturbances and necrosis was high, 23.5-28% depending on site. The polluted environment also affected embryo and endosperm. Necrosis of whole generative structures decreased plant fertility. This study indicates that the range of disturbances and necroses in embryological structures and processes (at gametophyte level) gives a set of useful characters to determine plant tolerance to stress, complementary to many tolerance characters at the sporophyte level of plant ontogenesis.
Główne pytanie tekstu dotyczy wchodzenia w dorosłość młodych Polaków w wieku 18-29 lat, ich postrzegania dorosłości. Zgodnie z wynikami badania młodzi odchodzą obecnie od deﬁniowania dorosłości w kategoriach tradycyjnych markerów społecznych na rzecz własności intrapsychicznych oraz kompetencji. Dorosłość jest silnie związana z postrzeganiem siebie jako osoby kompetentnej w obszarze zawodowym i relacji społecznych, z pewną autonomię. Markery te (kompetencji, relacji, autonomii) na poziomie mikro odpowiadają najważniejszym potrzebom psychicznym człowieka (teoria autodeterminacji). Na poziomie makro markery te są zbieżne z charakterystyką czterech europejskich modeli wchodzenia w dorosłość, stworzonych przez Cécile van de Velde. Polski model wydaje się mieć charakter hybrydowy, łączący dużą rolę kompetencji zawodowych i autonomii z naciskiem na samorozwój jednostki.
Thirty-two species of echinoderms from epibenthic sledges, dredges, scuba diving, and other samples (in total: 467 samples and c. 20 000 specimens) from fjords and coastal waters off Spitsbergen were analysed between 1996 and 2014. The most numerous group of echinoderms in the coastal waters off Spitsbergen is brittle stars (78% of the total individuals). The echinoderms do not form any clear assemblages according to depth or distance from glacial sedimentation and substrate. Some species prefer hard bottom (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) or water free from glacial suspensions (Ophiopholis aculeata). In contrast to the species listed above, we also found opportunistic species such as the starfish Urasterias lincki and the brittle star Ophiocten sericeum. These two species are distributed quite uniformly, regardless of the environmental factors. The majority of the species prefer a soft bottom below 200 m.
The elemental composition and morphology of aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactors (GSBRs) treating high-nitrogen digester supernatant was investigated. The investigation particularly focused on the effect of the number of anoxic phases (one vs. two) in the cycle and the dose of external organics loading (450 mg COD/(L·cycle) vs. 540 mg COD/(L·cycle)) on granule characteristics. Granules in all reactors were formed of many single cells of rod and spherical bacteria. Addition of the second anoxic phase in the GSBR cycle resulted in enhanced settling properties of the granules of about 10.6% and at the same time decreased granule diameter of about 19.4%. The study showed that external organics loading was the deciding factor in the elemental composition of biomass. At 540 mg COD/(L·cycle) the granules contained more weight% of C, S and N, suggesting more volatile material in the granule structure. At lower organics loadings granules had the higher diameter of granules which limited the diffusion of oxygen and favored precipitation of mineral compounds in the granule interior. In this biomass higher content of Mg, P and Ca, was observed.
Anaerobic digestion is an important technology for the bio-based economy. The stability of the process is crucial for its successful implementation and depends on the structure and functional stability of the microbial community. In this study, the total microbial community was analyzed during mesophilic fermentation of sewage sludge in full-scale digesters. The digesters operated at 34–35°C, and a mixture of primary and excess sludge at a ratio of 2:1 was added to the digesters at 550 m3/d, for a sludge load of 0.054 m3/(m3·d). The amount and composition of biogas were determined. The microbial structure of the biomass from the digesters was investigated with use of next-generation sequencing. The percentage of methanogens in the biomass reached 21%, resulting in high quality biogas (over 61% methane content). The abundance of syntrophic bacteria was 4.47%, and stable methane production occurred at a Methanomicrobia to Synergistia ratio of 4.6:1.0. The two most numerous genera of methanogens (about 11% total) were Methanosaeta and Methanolinea, indicating that, at the low substrate loading in the digester, the acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic paths of methane production were equally important. The high abundance of the order Bacteroidetes, including the class Cytophagia (11.6% of all sequences), indicated the high potential of the biomass for efficient degradation of lignocellulitic substances, and for degradation of protein and amino acids to acetate and ammonia. This study sheds light on the ecology of microbial groups that are involved in mesophilic fermentation in mature, stably-performing microbiota in full-scale reactors fed with sewage sludge under low substrate loading.