This article represents the farthest reaching analysis of the issue of the transfer of rights incorporated in the documents applied in maritime trade ever published in the Polish literature. The article is comprised of four sections. The first is a detailed description of the institution of endorsement on a bill of exchange (necessary for the subsequent considerations) which was normalized in articles 11-20 of the statute of 28 April 1936 The Bill of Exchange Act. The author discusses the legal essence of endorsement on a bill of exchange and its various forms while focusing attention on its leading role in the legal system for transferring rights from securities “on request”. Accordingly, the author also calls attention to the other application of the endorsement on a bill of exchange, especially to the transfer of rights with bills of lading, warehause receipts, and maritime insurance policies. The second section presents issues regarding the endorsement of bills of lading. The view the author expresses differs from that which has been published in the legal literature to date in that it narrows significantly the range in which the regulations of bill of exchange law endorsement can be applied in maritime relationships. Accordingly, with regard to bills of lading, the only endorsement on a bill of exchange regulations that can be applied are those which permit transferring the bill of lading to the endorsee. The form of endorsement on bills of lading, endorsment of set of originals of bill of lading, and the specifics of the endorsement of bills of lading accepted for loading are discussed at length. Legal comparative issues and so-called e-commerce, EDI, and the increasingly popular e-bills of lading are considered separately. The third section presents issues of storage law, which is regulated by the warehouse statute of 16 November 2000. Storage manifests are an integral element of the maritime trade. The principles for endorsing inseparable warehause receips, as well as separable - reverse and warranty are discussed with particular emphasis on the so-called first endorsement on the warrant. The range within which endorsement on a bill of exchange is applicable to storage law is described in detail. In the fourth section, attention is focused on the possibility of endorsing maritime insurance policies, with doubts expressed as to whether these documents are indeed securities. The author maintains that the range of the application of bill of exchange law to these types of documents should be limited exclusively to the realization of policy legitimization functions. In the conclusionSy the author expresses doubts as to whether current means of regulating the principles of transferring rights from securities applied in the maritime trade are optimal. In the author's opinion, instead of a complicated system of references to bill of exachange law, it would be better to normalize this issue separately in the maritime code and storage law.
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