The properties of the nonlinear phenomenon in water, including sea water, have been well known for many decades. The feature of the non homogeneous distribution of the speed of sound along the depth of the sea is very interesting from the physical and technical point of view. It is important especially in the observation of underwater area by means of acoustical method (Grelowska et al., 2013; 2014). The observation of the underwater space has been carried out for more than hundred years. In the second half of the twentieth century we observed very intense trend of development of the measuring methods of underwater sound speed. It was done mainly in the linear sound propagation aspect. At the end of 20th century nonlinear devices were invented. Thus, from this point of view, knowledge on the nonlinear properties of the sea water is the matter of interest. The phenomenon of nonlinear distortion of elastic waves, and the same the efficiency of nonlinear transfer of energy from the primary wave to the higher harmonic components depend on properties of the medium, especially on the material constant known as the nonlinearity parameter B/A. The Baltic Sea is a specific reservoir with untypically low salinity and low depth (Grelowska, 2000). In the paper results of investigation of nonlinear properties of the South and the Central Baltic by means of thermodynamic method are presented.
Acoustic waves are a carrier of information mainly in environments where the use of other types of waves, for example electromagnetic waves, is limited. The term acoustical imaging is widely used in the ultrasonic engineering to imaging areas in which the acoustic waves propagate. In particular, ultrasound is widely used in the visualization of human organs-ultrasonography (Nowicki, 2010). Expanding the concept, acoustical imaging can also be used to presentation (monitoring) the current state of sound intensity distribution leading to characterization of sources in observed underwater region. This can be represented in the form of an acoustic characteristic of the area, for example as a spectrogram. Knowledge of the underwater world which is built by analogy to the perception of the space on the Earth's surface is to be systematize in the form of images. Those images arise as a result of graphical representation of processed acoustic signals. In this paper, it is explained why acoustic waves are used in underwater imaging. Furthermore, the passive and active systems for underwater observation are presented. The paper is illustrated by acoustic images, most of them originated from our own investigation.
he paper contains results of a in situ research main task of which was to detect objects buried, partially or completely, in the sea bottom. Object detecting technologies employing acoustic wave sources based on nonlinear interaction of elastic waves require application of parametric sound sources. Detection of objects buried in the sea bottom with the use of classic hydroacoustic devices such as the sidescan sonar or multibeam echosounder proves ineffective. Wave frequencies used in such devices are generally larger than tens of kHz. This results in the fact that almost the whole acoustic energy is reflected from the bottom. On the other hand, parametric echosounders radiate waves with low frequency and narrow beam patterns which ensure high spatial resolution and allows to penetrate the sea bottom to depths of the order of tens of meters. This allows to detect objects that can be interesting, among other things, from archaeological or military point of view.
Study of the sea noise has been a subject of interest for many years. The first works in this scope were published at the turn of the twentieth century by Knudsen (Knudsen et al., 1948) and G. Wenz (Wenz, 1962). Disturbances called “shipping noise” are one of the important components of the sea noise. In this work the results of an experimental research of underwater noise produced by a small ship of a classic propulsion are presented. A linear receiving antenna composed of two orthogonal components was used in the investigation. Identification of the main sources of acoustic waves related with the ship was achieved. In addition, the intensity of the wave was measured. The research was performed in conditions of the shallow sea.
The paper presents the results of the noise propagation analysis in ship structures tested in a number of AHTS (Anchor Handling Tug Supply) vessels. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) based on numerical model developed specially for the purpose of this numerical investigation were conducted. This numerical model enabled the analysis of both the structural elements and the acoustic spaces. For the detailed studies 47 points fixed at various ship locations were selected. Prediction results with use of the numerical model were compared with the experimental results carried out in six identical AHTS vessels. Experimental studies were performed in accordance with the requirements of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Resolution A.468 (XII). As a result one presented a comparison of the model analysis and experimental tests results.