This study examines the pyrolysis of a single cylindrical wood particle using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The pyrolysis was conducted inside a pyrolysis reactor designed for this purpose. The experimental setup presented in this paper is capable of effectively characterizing the intensity of pyrolysis based on velocity distribution in the vicinity of wood particles. The results of the gas velocity distribution show that evaporation of moisture has as a major impact on the formation of the gas cushion as devolatilization.
The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the gasification process of beech wood. The experimental investigation was conducted inside a gasifier, which can be operated in downdraft and updraft gasification system. The most important operating parameter studied in this paper was the influence of the amount of supply air on the temperature distribution, biomass consumption and syngas calorific value. The results show that the amount of air significantly influences the temperature in the combustion zone for the downdraft gasification process, where temperature differences reached more than 150 ◦C.The increased amount of air supplied to the gasifier caused an increase in fuel consumption for both experimental setups. Experimental results regarding equivalence ratio show that for value below 0.2, the updraft gasification is characterized by a higher calorific value of producer gas, while for about 0.22 a similar calorific value (6.5 MJ/Nm3) for both gasification configurations was obtained. Above this value, an increase in equivalence ratio causes a decrease in the calorific value of gas for downdraft and updraft gasifiers.
The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.
The understanding the influence of biological processes on the characteristics of the signals backscattered by the sea floor is crucial in the development of the hydroacoustical benthic habitat classification techniques. The impact of the microphytobenthos photosynthesis on the acoustical backscattering properties of the Atlantic sandy sediments was previously demonstrated by Holliday et al. (2004) and Wildman and Huettel (2012). To account for the sensitivity of the hydroacoustical classification techniques to the backscattering properties of local marine sediments, it is important to understand the microphytobenthos photosynthesis impact for the Baltic Sea where the techniques are being actively developed now. This is the main motivation of the paper. In the paper the influence of the microphytobenthos photosynthesis on the characteristics of the echo signals reflected by sandy sediments in the typical Baltic temperature and the salinity conditions is discussed. The interdisciplinary multiday laboratory experiment was conducted to study the impact of benthic microalgal photosynthesis on the characteristics of the echo signal reflected by sandy sediments. Hydroacoustical data were collected under controlled constant light, temperature and salinity conditions. The oxygen content at different levels of the water column was simultaneously monitored.