Despite the consensus on the role of lung and pleura ultrasound in human medicine, veteri- nary medicine questions credibility of the pulmonary evaluation in ultrasound examination, based on the analysis of artifacts in animals with clinical signs of respiratory failure and possibility of pulmonary edema diagnosis with recognition of the degree of its severity. The study was conduct- ed on 47 animals (29 dogs and 18 cats) of different breeds, age and sex. In all of animals prior to the transthoracic lung and pleura ultrasound examination (TLPUS), all animals were subjected to a clinical examination and hematological blood test as well as chest radiography examination in three projections. Ultrasound imaging of the chest in each animal was performed at designated four defined segments. TLPUS in dogs and cats based on an analysis of artifacts allows recogni- tion of pulmonary edema, to the degree comparable to chest X-ray examination. The number of depicted B-lines artifacts is proportional to the degree of pulmonary edema. These results allow to reduce the number of radiographs and allow the shortening of the diagnostic process for pa- tients in life-threatening condition.
The aim of the study was to compare anaesthesia protocol utilizing combination ketamine/ medetomidine with epidural lidocaine or morphine to orthopaedic surgery in rabbits. All rabbits received intramuscularly medetomidine (0.5 mg/kg) and ketamine (20 mg/kg). In group L (n=13) epidural injection was performed with lidocaine (3 mg/kg) and in group M (n=13) with morphine (0.1 mg/kg) diluted with sterile saline to 0.6 ml. Rabbits underwent bilateral mosaicplasty surgery. Heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arte- rial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate (RR) were measured every 5 minute during surgical procedure. Duration of sensory blockade was measured based on toe pinch reflex and recorded. Hemodynamic parameters were comparable at baseline in both groups. We did not observe significant differences in HR, RR, SBP, DBP, MAP between group L and M. Intragroup statistical analysis revealed differences at different time points in group M in terms of HR, SBP, DBP, MAP. In rabbits in group M blood pressure dropped while HR increased over time. In both groups a decrease in SpO2 was observed. Mean duration of loss of the toe pinch reflex was similar between group L and M, and amounted to 72.79±34.48 and 82.80±17.85 minutes, respectively.