This study stacked a thin, dense BCuP-5 (Cu-Ag-P based filler metal) on a Cu-plate using the laser cladding (L.C) process to develop a method to manufacture Ag reducing multilayer clad electrical contact material with an Ag-M(O)/Ag/Cu/BCuP-5 structure. Then, the microstructure and macroscopic properties of the manufactured BCuP-5 coating layer were analyzed. The thickness of the manufactured coating layer was approximately 1.7 mm (maximum). Microstructural observation of the coating layer identified Cu, Ag and Cu-Ag-Cu3P ternary eutectic phases like those in the initial BcuP-5 powder. To evaluate the properties of the manufactured coating layer, hardness and adhesion strength tests were performed. The average hardness of the laser cladded coating layer was 183.2 Hv, which is 2.6 times greater than conventional brazed BcuP-5. The average pull-off strength measured using the stud pull test was 341.6 kg/cm2. Cross-sectional observation of the pulled-off material confirmed that the coating layer and substrate maintained a firm adhesion after pull-off. Thus, the actual adhesion strength of Cu/BcuP-5 was inferred to be greater than 341.6 kg/cm2. Based on the above findings, it was confirmed that it is possible to manufacture a sound Ag reducing multilayer clad electrical contact material using the laser cladding process.
This study was attempted to study for recovery of Li as Li2CO3 from cathode active material, especially NCA (LiNiCoAlO2), recovered from spent lithium ion batteries. This consists of two major processes, carbonation using CO2 and water leaching. Carbonation using CO2 was performed at 600ºC, 700ºC and 800ºC, and NCA (LiNiCoAlO2) was phase-separated into Li2CO3, NiO and CoO. The water leaching process using the differences in solubility was performed to obtain the optimum conditions by using the washing time and the ratio of the sample to the distilled water as variables. As a result, NCA (LiNiCoAlO2) was phase-separated into Li2CO3 and NiO, CoO at 700ºC, and Li2CO3 in water was recovered through vacuum filtration after 1 hour at a 1:30 weight ratio of the powder and distilled water. Finally, Li2CO3 containing Li of more than 98 wt.% was recovered.
Fe-Cr-B alloy is a material with precipitation of boride inside Fe matrix, and it features outstanding hardness and wear resistance properties. However, Fe-Cr-B alloy is a difficult material to process, making it difficult to use as a bulk type structure material which requires delicate shapes. This study attempted to manufacture Fe-Cr-B alloy using a 3D printing process, laser metal deposition. This study also investigated the microstructure, hardness and compression properties of the manufactured alloy. Phase analysis results is confirmed that α-Fe phase as matrix and (Cr, Fe)2B phase as reinforcement phase. In the case of (Cr, Fe)2B phase, differences were observed according to the sample location. While long, coarse, unidirectional needle-type boride phases (~11 μm thickness) were observed in the center area of the sample, relatively finer boride phases (~6 μm thickness) in random directions were observed in other areas. At room temperature compression test results confirmed that the sample had a compression strength is approximately 2.1 GPa, proving that the sample is a material with extremely high strength. Observation of the compression fracture surface identified intergranular fractures in areas with needle-type boride, and transgranular fractures in areas with random borides. Based on this results, this study also reviewed the deformation behavior of LMD Fe-Cr-B alloy in relation to its microstructures.