A hybrid artificial boundary condition (HABC) that combines the volume-based acoustic damping layer (ADL) and the local face-based characteristic boundary condition (CBC) is presented to enhance the absorption of acoustic waves near the computational boundaries. This method is applied to the prediction of aerodynamic noise from a circular cylinder immersed in uniform compressible viscous flow. Different ADLs are designed to assess their effectiveness whereby the effect of the mesh-stretch direction on wave absorption in the ADL is analysed. Large eddy simulation (LES) and FW-H acoustic analogy method are implemented to predict the far-field noise, and the sensitivities of each approach to the HABC are compared. In the LES computed propagation field of the fluctuation pressure and the frequency-domain results, the spurious reflections at edges are found to be significantly eliminated by the HABC through the effective dissipation of incident waves along the wave-front direction in the ADL. Thereby, the LES results are found to be in a good agreement with the acoustic pressure predicted using FW-H method, which is observed to be just affected slightly by reflected waves.
The Intrauterine fetal development process is complicated and affected by many regulating factors such as maternal nutritional status, transcription factors and adipokines. Adipokines are kinds of active substances secreted by adipose tissue, including more than 50 kinds of molecules. To explore the correlation between calf birth weights and adipokines including adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and IGF-1 in cows venous and venous cord blood. Fifty-four healthy multiparous Chinese Holstein cows were used; in which, cows with a calf weight less than 40 kg were included in group A (n=9); those with a calf weight between 40 kg~45 kg were included in group B (n=25) and ≥45 kg were included in group C (n=20), venous blood and cord venous blood was collected. An ELISA kit was used to evaluate the concentration of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and IGF-1, correlations between index-index and index-calf birth weight were analysed. In both cows venous and cord venous blood, adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and IGF-1 levels were significantly correlated with each other (p<0.01), and levels of these adipokines in venous blood were significantly higher than cord venous blood (p<0.01). Adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and IGF-1 in venous cord blood were positively correlated with calf birth weights, and significantly correlated with calf birth weights respectively (p<0.01). Our study showed that adiponectin, leptin, and IGF-1 were found in venous blood and cord venous blood, and adiponectin, leptin, and IGF-1 in venous and cord venous blood potentially inter-regulated each other; adiponectin, leptin, and IGF-1 in venous blood were not significantly correlated with calf birth weights, while adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and IGF-1 in venous cord blood were significantly correlated with calf birth weights, respectively.
The obtained results of heating of sand moulds with binders by means of a thermal radiation of liquid metal are presented in this study. Standard samples for measuring Rg made of the tested moulding sands were suspended at the lower part of the cover which was covering the crucible with liquid metal (cast iron), placed in the induction furnace. The authors own methodology was applied in investigations. The progressing of the samples surface layers heating process was determined as the heating time function. Samples of a few kinds of moulding sands with chemical binders were tested. Samples without protective coatings as well as samples with such coatings were tested. The influence of the thermal radiation on bending resistance of samples after their cooling was estimated. The influence of several parameters such as: time of heating, distance from the metal surface, metal temperature, application of coatings, were tested. A very fast loss of strength of moulding sands with organic binders was found, especially in cases when the distance between metal and sample surfaces was small and equaled to 10÷15 mm. Then, already after app. 15 seconds of the radiation (at Tmet=1400o C), the resistance decreases by nearly 70%. Generally, moulding sands with organic binders are losing their strength very fast, while moulding sands with water glass at first increase their strength and later slightly lose. The deposition of protective coatings increases the strength of the mould surface layers, however does not allow to retain this strength after the metal thermal radiation.
Abstract The influence of selected factors on drying ceramic moulds applied in the investment casting technology was determined by the gravimetric method. Moulds produced of ceramic sands based on the new generation binders - colloidal silica, were investigated. It was found that each successive layer, of a similar thickness, is drying longer than the previous one. The drying time of layers forming closed spaces is several times longer as compared with drying open surfaces (external). Grain size of matrix used for moulds sprinkling has none significant influence on drying rates.
A technology of sands with water glass hardened by liquid esters is a cheap and ecologic method of producing moulding sands. Due to these advantages, this technology is still very important in several foundry plants for production of heavy iron and steel castings. Reclamation of the mixed moulding and core sands generates significant amounts of dusts, which require further treatments for their reuse. The results of investigations of a pressureless granulation of dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of the mixture consisting in app. 90 % of moulding sands from the Floster S technology and in 10 % of core sands with phenolic resin resol type, are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations were aimed at obtaining granulates of the determined dimensional and strength parameters. Granules were formed from the mixture of dusts consisting of 75 mass% of dusts after the reclamation of sands mixture and of 25 mass% of dusts from bentonite sands processing plant. Wetted dusts from bentonite sands were used as a binding agent allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts originated from the mixed sands technology.
The new investigation method of the kinetics of the gas emission from moulding sands used for moulds and cores is presented in this paper. The gas evolution rate is presented not only as a function of heating time but also as a function of instantaneous temperatures. In relation to the time and heating temperature the oxygen and hydrogen contents in evolving gases was also measured. This method was developed in the Laboratory of Foundry Moulds Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH. Gas amounts which are emitted from the moulding sand at the given temperature recalculated to the time unit (kinetics) are obtained in investigations. Results of investigations of moulding sand with furan resin are presented - as an example - in the paper.
The paper deals with the application of the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) to simulations of discrete macro-cracks in plain concrete specimens under tension, bending and shear. Fundamental relationships and basic discrete constitutive laws were described. The most important aspects of the numerical implementation were discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of the method were outlined.
At thermal junctions of aluminium alloy castings and at points where risering proves to be difficult there appear internal or external shrinkages, which are both functionally and aesthetically inadmissible. Applying the Probat Fluss Mikro 100 agent, which is based on nano-oxides of aluminium, results in the appearance of a large amount of fine microscopic pores, which compensate for the shrinking of metal. Experimental tests with gravity die casting of AlSi8Cu3 and AlSi10Mg alloys have confirmed that the effect of the agent can be of advantage in foundry practice, leading to the production of castings without local concentrations of defects and without the appearance of shrinkages and macroscopic gas pores. Also, beneficial effect on the mechanical properties of the metal has been observed.
The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of used sands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determined dimensions and strength parameters. Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in 50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands. The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W), shatter test of granules (Wz) performed directly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined. Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm. For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition of water-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out. The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of moulding sands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.
The article presents the results of investigation of ultra-strength nanostructured bainitic steel Fe-0.6%C-1.9%Mn-1.8%Si-1.3%Cr-0.7%Mo (in wt. %) subjected to shear and uniaxial compression under high strain rate loading. Steel of microstructure consisted of carbide-free bainite and carbon enriched retained austenite presents a perfect balance of mechanical properties especially strength to toughness ratio. Two retained austenite morphologies exist which controlled ductility of the steel: film between bainite laths and separated blocks. It is well established that the strain induced transformation of carbon enriched retained austenite to martensite takes place during deformation. Shear localisation has been found to be an important and often dominant deformation and fracture mode in high-strength steels at high strain rate. Deformation tests were carried out using Gleeble simulator and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. Shear and compression strength were determined and toughness and crack resistance were assessed. Susceptibility of nanostructured bainitic steel to the formation of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) and conditions of the bands formation were analysed. The results suggest that the main mechanism of hardening and failure at the dynamic shearing is local retained austenite transformation to high-carbon martensite which preceded ASBs formation. In the area of strain localization retained austenite transformed to fresh martensite and then steel capability to deformation and strengthening decreases.