In this study, modification of the AZ91 magnesium alloy surface layer with a CO2 continuous wave operation laser has been taken on. The extent and character of structural changes generated in the surface layer of the material was being assessed on the basis of both macro- and microscopy investigations, and the EDX analysis. Considerable changes in the structure of the AZ91 alloy surface layer and the morphology of phases have been found. The remelting processing was accompanied by a strong refinement of the structure and a more uniform distribution of individual phases. The conducted investigations showed that the remelting zone dimensions are a result of the process parameters, and that they can be controlled by an appropriate combination of basic remelting parameters, i.e. the laser power, the distance from the sample surface, and the scanning rate. The investigations and the obtained results revealed the possibility of an effective modification of the AZ91 magnesium alloy surface layer in the process of remelting carried out with a CO2 laser beam.