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Abstract

The work proposes a new method for vehicle classification, which allows treating vehicles uniformly at the stage of defining the vehicle classes, as well as during the classification itself and the assessment of its correctness. The sole source of information about a vehicle is its magnetic signature normalised with respect to the amplitude and duration. The proposed method allows defining a large number (even several thousand) of classes comprising vehicles whose magnetic signatures are similar according to the assumed criterion with precisely determined degree of similarity. The decision about the degree of similarity and, consequently, about the number of classes, is taken by a user depending on the classification purpose. An additional advantage of the proposed solution is the automated defining of vehicle classes for the given degree of similarity between signatures determined by a user. Thus the human factor, which plays a significant role in currently used methods, has been removed from the classification process at the stage of defining vehicle classes. The efficiency of the proposed approach to the vehicle classification problem was demonstrated on the basis of a large set of experimental data.
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Abstract

Catalytic converters contain the catalytic substance in their structure, which is a mixture of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs). The prices of these metals and a growing demand for them in the market, make it necessary to recycle spent catalytic converters and recovery of PGMs. In the study, the effect of ozone and hydrogen peroxide application on the possibility of extracting PGM from used car catalysts was investigated. The catalytic carrier was milled, sieved and then the fractions with the desired grain size were treated with the appropriate HCl mixture and 3%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% H2O2, respectively, and the tests were also carried out at temperature 333 K. Ozone tests were conducted with the O3 flow in the range of 1,3,5 g/h. Samples for analysis were collected after 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and after 4 h, respectively. The residue after the experiments and filtration process was also analysed. The obtained results confirmed the assumption that PGMs can be extracted using hydrochloric acid with the addition of H2O2 or ozone as oxidants. It allows to significantly intensify the carried out reactions and to improve the rate of PGMs transfer to the solution.
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Abstract

The main purpose of the present work was to validate the numerical model for the pulse-step liquid steel alloying method using a physical simulator that enables the observation and recording of phenomena occurring during the continuous steel casting process. The facility under investigation was a single-nozzle tundish equipped with a dam. To physical trials the glass water model was made on a scale of 2:5. For the mathematical description of turbulence during liquid steel alloying process, the k-ε and k-ω models were employed in the simulations. Based on the computer simulations and physical trials carried out, alloy addition behaviour and mixing curves for different tundish alloy addition feeding positions were obtained. The change in the location of alloy addition feeding to the liquid steel had an effect on the process of alloy addition spread in the liquid steel bulk and on the mixing time.
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