Published in 1904, Jolanta: A Dramatic Poet in One Act by Edward Leszczynski is – like Atlantyda, one of his later dramas – a celebration of love, vitality, and life. Both works are saturated with the symbolic profusion of the Pre-Raphaelites. In Jolanta the glowing spiritual and symbols, inspired by the paintings of William Holman Hunt, are used to communicate the horror of a solar apocalypse punctuating a deadlocked argument. An eschatological reading of the drama, proposed in this article, puts its apocalyptic ending in a new perspective.
This article re-examines the life and work of August Antoni Jakubowski, illegitimate son of the Romantic poet Antoni Malczewski. After the November Uprising (1830–1831) Jakubowski was deported from Austria to the Unites States, where he wrote The Remembrances of a Polish Exile, the fi rst book on Polish history, literature and education to be published in America in English. The article discusses ‘Melodie amerykańskie’ [American Melodies], a little known poem which has not yet been the subject of an in-depth literary analysis, as well as a number of hitherto unknown references to Jakubowski in the letters his student Mary Pierce Poor wrote to her parents between 1836 and 1837. The article presents the results of research into primary source material in American collections; the project was funded by a grant from the Kościuszko Foundation.
This article examines the problem of motherhood in the poetry of Joanna Mueller from the perspective of feminist body studies. Throughout her poetic work Mueller keeps analyzing the formation of a new subject, a process closely connected with the creation, or giving birth, to new poems and reproduction. She dignifi es the experience of motherhood by focusing on the peculiar condition of ‘being two in one’. This is further enhanced by the emblematic arrangement of the individual poems (formed into mounds, folds, the womb, the vagina, and blood vessels) and references to the primeval Mother Goddess. The matrifocal narration exalts the maternal female body to its sovereign position, justifi ed by its power over life; indeed, the combined force of Mueller’s naturalistic description and discursive momentum not only subverts the patriarchal narrative of female passivity and inferiority but in a way sacralizes the feminine principle.
Zoonims provide information in the fields of linguistics, history, archeology, and ethnography. However, they are rarely examined comprehensively. This article investigates the words used for three most popular domesticated animals in the Slavic world, namely the horse, the dog and the cat. It studies these words, focusing on the history of animal husbandry in the Slavic countries and their contemporary geography.
Architecture created in Poland of 21st C. is somewhere a mode of selfpresentation, in another cases is a method of shouting down the others. It is also aomwhere talking without any thesis, instead with a large dose of a badly understood assertiveness. Whe should to built a clear architectural activity, more objectified, and tied with a contemporaneity. We should begin from the most basic rules, from the certain architectural grammar. The identity can be understood as a set of features, which e.g. let to distinguish architecture growing out in Poland, in contrary to architecture rooted somewhere elsewhere. Those are not always any formal features. In order to understand what a spirit of the place really is, e.g. in ancient Rome there was an idea of the watchman spirit. This spirit gives life to the people and to the places, accompany them since they a born until they are dead. It determines their character or the content.
CSR on Mazovia – Institutional Dimension. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is defined as the responsibility of enterprises for their impacts on society. For the effective implementation of this concept are very important institutions, understood as a permanent (legal, organizational and customary) determinants of repetitive human behaviour and peopleto- people interaction. Institutions can therefore be both organisations that promotes this concept and CSR projects or strategies. The aim of the article is to review the thesis that the Mazovia is the driving force of the development of CSR in Poland, carried out on the basis of desk and web research. By evaluating the degree of institutionalisation of CSR in Mazovia, based on an analysis of the activities of the various sectors in this field, it was found that most activities for the implementation of this concept is undertaken in Mazovia, and many of them have coverage nationwide.
Szeroko rozumiane pojęcie ludzi morza obejmuje nie tylko tych, którzy przemierzając akweny, ryzykowali swoim życiem, ale i tych, którzy wysyłali ich w rejs i ryzykowali swoim majątkiem. Analiza obejmuje środowisko ludzi morza w głównych portach bałtyckich (Gdańsk, Szczecin, Elbląg, Stralsund, Kołobrzeg) w zależności od stanu badań. Środowisko armatorów dość żywo reagowało na zmienne koniunktury gospodarcze. Należy też zauważyć, że w coraz większym stopniu ich aktywność zależała od polityki gospodarczej rządu centralnego (system podatkowy, monopolowy, akcyzowy). Widoczny jest też związek armatorstwa z prowadzeniem działalności kupieckiej oraz dużą popularnością spółek armatorskich zawiązywanych w celu prowadzenia wspólnych interesów handlowych, wzmacnianych poprzez koligacje rodzinne i towarzyskie. W okresach prosperity wzrastała liczba żaglowców, łatwiej było szyprom i marynarzom znaleźć pracę na statku. Kwestia ich zatrudnienia była regulowana odgórnie regulaminami i zapisami wilkierzy miejskich. Brak było jednak państwowych lub miejskich ustaw socjalnych, a zabezpieczenie życia i zdrowia lub bytu rodziny zależało od inicjatyw prywatnych lub gildii.