This paper presents the concept and modern technological approach to the fabrication of discrete, integrated and integral micropassives. The role of these components in modern electronic circuits is discussed too. The material, technological and constructional solutions and their relation with electrical and stability properties are analyzed in details for linear and nonlinear microresistors made and characterized at the Faculty of Microsystem Technology, Wrocław University of Technology.
The paper presents the possibility of the usage of the concfocal microscope for define the type of tribological wear present during the technical dry friction on the testing machine of the pin-on-disc T-01M. The pin was a remelted high-speed steel and the disc was made from sintered carbides. The surface layer of the high-speed steel was remelted with the electric arc with different parameters. The intensity of the electric arc current was changed, the scanning speed and the single, overlapping remeltings were used. On the basis of the 3D, 2D view of the surface friction of the pin (made from the remelted high-speed steel), disc (made from the sintered carbides) and the surface roughness profile run along the marked line, the presence of the abrasive wear can be defined with the description of the elementary wear processes due to the abrasive and/or adhesive wear.
Despite significant changes of a political, legal and economic nature, despite clearly expressed intentions, the natural environment of most areas of Europe is further degraded. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt effective solutions, and one of the possibilities of determining the directions of support is the pro-ecological nature of the regional innovation strategy, which will allow transfer of much larger funds to support eco-innovation. The work is a case study. The aim of the research presented in this work is to show the relationship between the provisions of the Regional Innovation Strategy of the Podkarpackie Voivodeship for 2014-2020 for intelligent specialization (RIS3), and the assumptions of the five-helix concept, and the justifi cation for its use in future, in the form of a developed regional eco-innovation strategy.
The poorly cemented Ciężkowice poorly sorted sandstone and the compact Mucharz fine grain sandstone have been laboratory tested at the triaxial compressing conditions in thermo-pressurized chamber of a rigid press MTS-815. The confining pressure: P = σ₂ = gσ₃ range from 0 to 96 MPa and the temperature: T from 22°C to 120°C (simulated 500 m intervals from the surface to the depth of 3500 m). During (the) each test, the characteristics of deformation and the elastic wave velocity paths were simultaneously monitored. The volume density and longitudinal wave velocity showed a non-linear increase with the progress of simulated depth, a volume density growth by 1.6 to 4.0%, and the elastic wave velocity up to 250% of the primary value (surface condition), dependable on loading path, phase of deformation, and varying type of lithology. That may lead to wide error margin in a determination of rock’s engineering properties and also create discrepancies between the static parameters of rocks (Est, gνst) determined by standard laboratory load tests, and the dynamic parameters (Ed, νd) determined from the wave velocity and volume density.
The paper is intented to show a new, state space, discrete, non integer order model of a one-dimensional heat transfer process. The proposed model derives directly from time continuous, state space model and it uses the discrete Grünwald-Letnikov operator to express the fractional order difference with respect to time. Stability and spectrum decomposition for the proposed model are recalled, the accuracy and convergence are analyzed too. The convergence of the proposed model does not depend on parameters of heater and measuring sensors. The dimension of the model assuring stability and predefined rate of convergence and stability is estimated. Analytical results are confirmed by experiments.
Measurement of low-frequency noise properties of modern electronic components is a very demanding challenge due to the low magnitude of a noise signal and the limit of a dissipated power. In such a case, an ac technique with a lock-in amplifier or the use of a low-noise transformer as the first stage in the signal path are common approaches. A software dual-phase virtual lock-in (VLI) technique has been developed and tested in low-frequency noise studies of electronic components. VLI means that phase-sensitive detection is processed by a software layer rather than by an expensive hardware lock-in amplifier. The VLI method has been tested in exploration of noise in polymer thick-film resistors. Analysis of the obtained noise spectra of voltage fluctuations confirmed that the 1/f noise caused by resistance fluctuations is the dominant one. The calculated value of the parameter describing the noise intensity of a resistive material, C = 1·10−21 m3, is consistent with that obtained with the use of a dc method. On the other hand, it has been observed that the spectra of (excitation independent) resistance noise contain a 1/f component whose intensity depends on the excitation frequency. The phenomenon has been explained by means of noise suppression by impedances of the measurement circuit, giving an excellent agreement with the experimental data.
Studies of electrical properties, including noise properties, of thick-film resistors prepared from various resistive and conductive materials on LTCC substrates have been described. Experiments have been carried out in the temperature range from 300 K up to 650 K using two methods, i.e. measuring (i) spectra of voltage fluctuations observed on the studied samples and (ii) the current noise index by a standard meter, both at constant temperature and during a temperature sweep with a slow rate. The 1/f noise component caused by resistance fluctuations occurred to be dominant in the entire range of temperature. The dependence of the noise intensity on temperature revealed that a temperature change from 300 K to 650 K causes a rise in magnitude of the noise intensity approximately one order of magnitude. Using the experimental data, the parameters describing noise properties of the used materials have been calculated and compared to the properties of other previously studied thick-film materials.
The aim of that work was the evaluation of the quality of welded connections elements (welds) from the 30HGS steel and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. The metallographic, factographic tests were used, and measurements of microhardness with the Vickers method. In the head weld of the 30HGS steel there were non-metallic partial division and bubbles observed. The average microhardness in the head connection was 320 HV0.1. There was no significant increase/decrease observed of microhardness in the head influence zone of the weld. There was a good condition of head connections observed, in accordance with the standard EN12517 and EN25817. In the head weld of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy there were single, occasional non-metallic interjections and bubbles observed. There were no cracks both on the weld, and on the border of the heat influence zone. The value of microhardness in head connection was in the range 300÷445 HV0.1. Reveal a very good condition of the head connections in accordance with the standard EN12517 and EN25817. The factographic tests prove the correctness of welded connections done and then heat treatment in case of steel and titanium alloy.
Studies of noise properties of thick-film conducting lines from Au or PdAg conductive pastes on LTCC or alumina substrates are reported. Experiments have been carried out at the room temperature on samples prepared in the form of meanders by traditional screen-printing or laser-shaping technique. Due to a low resistance of the devices under test (DUTs), low-frequency noise spectra have been measured for the dc-biased samples arranged in a bridge configuration, transformer-coupled to a low-noise amplifier. The detailed analysis of noise sources in the signal path and its transfer function, including the transformer, has been carried out, and a procedure for measurement setup self-calibration has been described. The 1/f noise component originating from resistance fluctuations has been found to be dominant in all DUTs. The analysis of experimental data leads to the conclusion that noise is produced in the bends of meanders rather than in their straight segments. It occurs that noise of Au-based laser-shaped lines is significantly smaller than screen-printed ones. PdAg lines have been found more resistive but simultaneously less noisy than Au-based lines.
The article discusses an innovative system used for aerobic biostabilisation and biological drying of solid municipal waste. A mechanical–biological process (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment were carried out and monitored in 5 bioreactors. A two-stage biological treatment process has been used in the investigation. In the first step an undersize fraction was subjected to the biological stabilisation for a period of 14 days as a result of which there was a decrease of loss on ignition, but not sufficient to fulfill the requirements of MBT technology. In the second stage of a biological treatment has been applied 7-days intensive bio-drying of MSW using sustained high temperatures in bioreactor. The article presents the results of the chemical composition analysis of the undersize fraction and waste after biological drying, and also the results of temperature changes, pH ratio, loss on ignition, moisture content, combustible and volatile matter content, heat of combustion and calorific value of wastes. The mass balance of the MBT of MSW with using the innovative aeration system showed that only 14.5% of waste need to be landfilled, 61.5% could be used for thermal treatment, and nearly 19% being lost in the process as CO2 and H2O.