The article discusses the book Roizman. The Ural Robin Hood by Valery Panyushkin (2014). The author of the article points out that the novel, which belongs to a non-fiction literature, contains typical features of a reportage (i.e. the category of a participant and the category of a witness). This book also seems to be taking qualities of a narrative prose. The writer uses virtual reported speech form or presents reality from the perspective of his characters’ awareness. Such a narrative method does not lead Panyushkin to blur the boundary between referentiality and fi ctionality in his book but inclines cognitive skepticism. Neither does it neglect the “truth” of facts, nor does it interpret them, but it indicates various ways of interpreting certain events or phenomena.
The paper concerns the problem of state assignment for finite state machines (FSM), targeting at PAL-based CPLDs implementations. Presented in the paper approach is dedicated to state encoding of fast automata. The main idea is to determine the number of logic levels of the transition function before the state encoding process, and keep the constraints during the process. The number of implicants of every single transition function must be known while assigning states, so elements of two level minimization based on Primary and Secondary Merging Conditions are implemented in the algorithm. The method is based on code length extraction if necessary. In one of the most basic stages of the logic synthesis of sequential devices, the elements referring to constraints of PAL-based CPLDs are taken into account.
Mesoscale flows of liquid are of great importance for various nano- and biotechnology applications. Continuum model do not properly capture the physical phenomena related to the diffusion effects, such as Brownian motion. Molecular approach on the other hand, is computationally too expensive to provide information relevant for engineering applications. Hence, the need for a mesoscale approach is apparent. In recent years many mesoscale models have been developed, particularly to study flows of gas. However, mesoscale behaviour of liquid substantially differs from that of gas. This paper presents a numerical study of micro-liquids phenomena by a Voronoi Dissipative Particle Dynamics method. The method has its origin from the material science field and is one of very few numerical techniques which can describe correctly molecular diffusion processes in mesoscale liquids. This paper proves that correct prediction of molecular diffusion effects plays predominant role on the correct prediction of behaviour of immersed structures in the mesoscopic flow.
Abstract Plants belonging to the family Oleaceae have been traditionally used in treatment of various inflammatory skin disorders. One of the most well-known species is Olea europaea L. (olive), cultivated in the Mediterranean countries. Another species is Ligustrum vulgare L. (common privet), occurring particularly in Northern Europe and Asia. The aim of the study was a comparison of the composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from leaves of O. europaea and L. vulgare (HPLC-DAD-MS), and determination of the total content of phenolics and flavonoids, as well as the content of the major compound, oleuropein. Secondly, we aimed to study the protective effect of extracts on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by human fibroblast cells (NHDF), cell viability (MTT assay), and apoptosis rate (Annexin V/propidium iodide staining) after UVA-irradiation. The phytochemical analysis allowed us to identify compounds belonging to the groups of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids and secoiridoids in the extracts. The compounds from the group of lignans (olivil) were identified as being unique to O. europaea extracts. Echinacoside, ligustroflavone and ligustaloside A were identified in L. vulgare extracts in contrast to olive preparations. It was established that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from leaves of both species, except the privet aqueous extract at a concentration of 5 μg/ml, did not show any significant inhibition of ROS production after UVA-irradiation in the model of NHDF cell line. The aqueous extracts of both species at concentrations of 5 and 25 μg/ml had a protective effect on the viability of UVA-treated cells in contrast to the ethanolic extract. In conclusion, no significant difference in the activity of olive and privet leaf extracts has been observed, which suggests that both plant materials’ extracts, particularly aqueous ones, are effective herbal medicines and photoprotectors, which – to some extent – confirms the use of their preparations in skin disorders.